Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma Clinicopathological Features, Nodal Metastasis and Outcome in 333 Cases

Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo, São Paulo, Brazil.
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 07/2009; 182(2):528-34; discussion 534. DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.04.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We evaluated clinicopathological features and outcomes in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma.
We studied 333 patients with homogeneous surgical treatment, including circumcision in 4, local excision in 2, partial penectomy in 194 and total penectomy in 133. Of the patients 153 also underwent bilateral groin dissection. Followup was 8 to 453 months (average 100).
The usual type of squamous cell carcinoma was noted in 65% of cases. Higher histological grade, deeper anatomical infiltration, and vascular and perineural invasion were common findings in sarcomatoid, basaloid and adenosquamous carcinoma cases, correlating with a higher rate of nodal metastasis and mortality. These features were unusual in verrucous, papillary and warty carcinoma cases. Recurrence in 22% of cases was common for the sarcomatoid, basaloid and adenosquamous types but was not noted for verrucous carcinoma. Locoregional relapse was more common in cases of usual, mixed, papillary and warty carcinoma, and systemic relapse was typical in sarcomatoid and basaloid carcinoma cases. The overall metastasis rate was 24% and the 10-year survival rate was 82%. The highest mortality rate was observed within the first 3 years of followup. High grade tumors were more common in penectomy cases and carcinoma exclusive of the foreskin had a better prognosis. The nodal metastasis risk groups were low--verrucous, papillary and warty, intermediate--usual and mixed, and high risk--sarcomatoid, basaloid and adenosquamous. Mortality risk groups were low--mixed, papillary and warty, intermediate--usual and basaloid, and high risk--sarcomatoid.
These data should help clinicians to design therapeutic strategies and followup protocols.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Penile cancer is a devastating disease, usually diagnosed late, that requires wide excisions, which causes alterations in self-esteem and body image, affecting sexual and urinary functions, which compromise quality of life. Recently, an increasing interest in penile-sparing surgeries (PSSs) has emerged, aiming to spare patients from these complications. Several options of PSS have been popularized for selected cases (Ta-1, Tis and some T2), such as wide local excision, circumcision, partial penectomy, total or partial glansectomies with or without glans-resurfacing procedures, as well as new glans reconstructions using spatulated urethral advances or free skin grafts. These options, in general, achieve good local control, with adequate functional results and satisfactory cosmetic appearance. The local recurrences, however, are slightly higher than amputations. Contemporary techniques such as laser or cryotherapy can be performed in selected cases. PSS must be indicated only for superficial penile cancer cases, such as Tis and Ta-1, and for selected invasive lesions (small distal pT2 tumors). Candidates for PSS should be adherent to follow-up requirements, allowing early detection of local recurrences. Prompt and effective salvage procedures are mandatory in these situations.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) is considered one of the most important antioxidant enzymes that regulate cellular redox state in normal and tumorigenic cells. Overexpression of this enzyme in lung, gastric, colorectal, breast cancer and cervical cancer malignant tumors has been observed. Its relationship with inguinal lymph node metastasis in penile cancer is unknown. SOD2 protein expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry in 125 usual type squamous cell carcinomas of the penis from a Brazilian cancer center. The casuistic has been characterized by means of descriptive statistics. An exploratory logistic regression has been proposed to evaluate the independent predictive factors of lymph node metastasis. SOD2 expression in more than 50% of cells was observed in 44.8% of primary penile carcinomas of the usual type. This expression pattern was associated with lymph node metastasis both in the uni and multivariate analysis. Our results indicate that SOD2 expression predicts regional lymph node metastasis. The potential clinical implication of this observation warrants further studies.
    BMC Clinical Pathology 03/2015; 15(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s12907-015-0003-7
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intraglomerular metastasis is a rare manifestation of disseminated malignancies. We present here a case of intraglomerular metastatic carcinoma diagnosed as an incidental finding on a kidney biopsy in a 62-year-old male presenting with acute renal failure and metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma. A proliferative lesion composed of highly atypical epithelial cells was found within a capillary loop and adjacent urinary space of an isolated glomerulus, which was immunoreactive for markers of squamous cell carcinoma. This case is a reminder that circulating cancer cells can occasionally lodge in glomeruli and appear as micrometastasis in kidney biopsies performed for the evaluation of renal dysfunction.
    08/2012; 5(4):292-6. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfs051