Early evaluation of acute traumatic coagulopathy by thrombelastography.
ABSTRACT Posttraumatic coagulopathy is a major cause of morbidity. This prospective study evaluated the thrombelastography (TEG) system and PlateletMapping (Haemoscope Corporation, Niles, Ill) values posttrauma, and it correlated those values with transfusions and fatalities. After institutional review board approval, assays were performed on 161 trauma patients. One citrated blood sample was collected onsite (OS), and 1 citrate and 1 heparinized sample were collected within 1 h of arrival to the emergency department (ED). Paired and unpaired t-testing was performed for nominal data with chi square testing for categorical values. Except for a slight increase in clot strength (maximal amplitude (MA)), there were no significant changes from OS to the ED. None of the TEG parameters were significantly different for the 22 patients who required transfusion. PlateletMapping showed lower platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) responsiveness in patients who needed transfusions (MA = 22.7 +/- 17.1 vs MA = 35.7 +/- 19.3, P = 0.004) and a correlation of fibrinogen <100 mg/dL with fatalities (P = 0.013). For the 14 fatalities, TEG reaction (R) time was 3703 +/- 11,618 versus 270 +/- 393 s (P = < 0.001), and MA was 46.4 +/- 22.4 versus 64.7 +/- 9.8 mm (P < 0.001). Hyperfibrinolysis (percent fibrinolysis after 60 min (LY60) >15%) was observed in 3 patients in the ED with a 67% fatality rate (P = < 0.001 by chi-square testing). PlateletMapping assays correlated with the need for blood transfusion. The abnormal TEG System parameters correlated with fatality. These coagulopathies were already evident OS. The TEG assays can assess coagulopathy, platelet dysfunction, and hyperfibrinolysis at an early stage posttrauma and suggest more effective interventions.
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ABSTRACT: We compared blood component requirements during major obstetric haemorrhage, following the introduction of fibrinogen concentrate. A prospective study of transfusion requirements and patient outcomes was performed for 12 months to evaluate the major obstetric haemorrhage pathway using shock packs (Shock Pack phase). The study was repeated after the pathway was amended to include fibrinogen concentrate (Fibrinogen phase). The median (IQR [range]) number of blood components given was 8.0 (3.0–14.5 [0–32]) during the Shock Pack phase, and 3.0 (2.0–5.0 [0–26]) during the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.0004). The median (IQR [range]) quantity of fibrinogen administered was significantly greater in the Shock Pack phase, 3.2 (0–7.1 [0–20.4]) g, than in the Fibrinogen phase, 0 (0–3.0 [0–12.4]) g, p = 0.0005. Four (9.5%) of 42 patients in the Shock Pack phase developed transfusion associated circulatory overload compared with none of 51 patients in the Fibrinogen phase (p = 0.038). Fibrinogen concentrate allows prompt correction of coagulation deficits associated with major obstetric haemorrhage, reducing the requirement for blood component therapy and the attendant risks of complications.Anaesthesia 10/2014; 70(2). DOI:10.1111/anae.12859 · 3.85 Impact Factor
Article: Acute traumatic coagulopathy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose of review Mortality from trauma remains a global public health challenge, with most preventable deaths due to bleeding. The recognition of acute traumatic coagulopathy as a distinct clinical entity characterized by early coagulation dysfunction, arising prior to medical intervention, has revolutionized trauma management over the last decade. The aim of this article is to review our current understanding of acute traumatic coagulopathy. Recent findings We focus on recent advances in the mechanistic understanding of acute traumatic coagulopathy, particularly the changes in coagulation factors, physiological anticoagulants, endothelial activation, fibrinolysis and platelet dysfunction. Evolving diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are discussed, including viscoelastic coagulation monitoring and the role of tranexamic acid and blood products. Summary Emphasis is now placed on early prevention, diagnosis, and aggressive initial treatment of coagulopathy and fibrinolysis with haemostatic blood products and tranexamic acid in addition to red cell units in order to reduce bleeding and improve clinical outcomes.Current Opinion in Critical Care 10/2014; 20(6). DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000158 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last 10 years, the management of major haemorrhage in trauma patients has changed radically. This is mainly due to the recognition that many patients who are bleeding when they come in to the emergency department have an established coagulopathy before the haemodilution effects of fluid resuscitation. This has led to the use of new terminology: acute traumatic coagulopathy, acute coagulopathy of trauma shock or trauma-induced coagulopathy. The recognition of acute traumatic coagulopathy is important, because we now understand that its presence is a prognostic indicator, as it is associated with poor clinical outcome. This has driven a change in clinical management, so that the previous approach of maintaining an adequate circulating volume and oxygen carrying capacity before, as a secondary event, dealing with coagulopathy, has changed to haemostatic resuscitation as early as possible. While there is as yet no universally accepted assay or definition, many experts use prolongation of the prothrombin time to indicate that there is, indeed, a coagulopathy. Hypoxia, acidosis and hypothermia and hormonal, immunological and cytokine production, alongside consumption and blood loss, and the dilutional effects of resuscitation may occur to varying extents depending on the type of tissue damaged, the type and extent of injury, predisposing to, or amplifying, activation of coagulation, platelets, fibrinolysis. These are discussed in detail within the article. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.Anaesthesia 01/2015; 70 Suppl 1:96-e34. DOI:10.1111/anae.12914 · 3.85 Impact Factor