Early evaluation of acute traumatic coagulopathy by Thromboelastography
ABSTRACT Posttraumatic coagulopathy is a major cause of morbidity. This prospective study evaluated the thrombelastography (TEG) system and PlateletMapping (Haemoscope Corporation, Niles, Ill) values posttrauma, and it correlated those values with transfusions and fatalities. After institutional review board approval, assays were performed on 161 trauma patients. One citrated blood sample was collected onsite (OS), and 1 citrate and 1 heparinized sample were collected within 1 h of arrival to the emergency department (ED). Paired and unpaired t-testing was performed for nominal data with chi square testing for categorical values. Except for a slight increase in clot strength (maximal amplitude (MA)), there were no significant changes from OS to the ED. None of the TEG parameters were significantly different for the 22 patients who required transfusion. PlateletMapping showed lower platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) responsiveness in patients who needed transfusions (MA = 22.7 +/- 17.1 vs MA = 35.7 +/- 19.3, P = 0.004) and a correlation of fibrinogen <100 mg/dL with fatalities (P = 0.013). For the 14 fatalities, TEG reaction (R) time was 3703 +/- 11,618 versus 270 +/- 393 s (P = < 0.001), and MA was 46.4 +/- 22.4 versus 64.7 +/- 9.8 mm (P < 0.001). Hyperfibrinolysis (percent fibrinolysis after 60 min (LY60) >15%) was observed in 3 patients in the ED with a 67% fatality rate (P = < 0.001 by chi-square testing). PlateletMapping assays correlated with the need for blood transfusion. The abnormal TEG System parameters correlated with fatality. These coagulopathies were already evident OS. The TEG assays can assess coagulopathy, platelet dysfunction, and hyperfibrinolysis at an early stage posttrauma and suggest more effective interventions.
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- "MA was identified as predictor of pulmonary embolism, after controlling for gender, race, age and ISS. Carroll  and Nekludow  have demonstrated in trauma patients and Vucelic  in elective surgery that TEG® may diagnose platelet dysfunction. Platelet dysfunction is believed to have an important role in traumatic bleeding. "
ABSTRACT: Background Thrombelastography is a laboratorial test that measures viscoelastic changes of the entire clotting process. There is growing interest in its clinical use in trauma resuscitation, particularly for managing acute coagulopathy of trauma and assisting decision making concerning transfusion. This review focuses on the clinical use of thrombelastography in trauma, with practical points to consider on its use in civilian and military settings. Methods A search in the literature using the terms “thrombelastography AND trauma” was performed in PUBMED database. We focused the review on the main clinical aspects of this viscoelastic method in diagnosing and treating patients with acute coagulopathy of trauma during initial resuscitation. Results Thrombelastography is not a substitute for conventional laboratorial tests such as INR and aPTT but offers additional information and may guide blood transfusion. Thrombelastography can be used as a point of care test but requires multiple daily calibrations, should be performed by trained personnel and its technique requires standardization. While useful partial results may be available in minutes, the whole test may take as long as other conventional tests. The most important data provided by thrombelastography are clot strength and fibrinolysis. Clot strength measure can establish whether the bleeding is due to coagulopathy or not, and is the key information in thrombelastography-based transfusion algorithms. Thrombelastography is among the few tests that diagnose and quantify fibrinolysis and thus guide the use of anti-fibrinolytic drugs and blood products such as cryoprecipitate and fibrinogen concentrate. It may also diagnose platelet dysfunction and hypercoagulability and potentially prevent inappropriate transfusions of hemostatic blood products to non-coagulopathic patients. Conclusions Thrombelastography has characteristics of an ideal coagulation test for use in early trauma resuscitation. It has limitations, but may prove useful as an additional test. Future studies should evaluate its potential to guide blood transfusion and the understanding of the mechanisms of trauma coagulopathy.Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 04/2013; 21(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1757-7241-21-29 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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- "However, conventional plasma-based coagulation tests, such as prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), fibrinogen, and platelet number, only reflect the initiation of the hemostatic process; the tests cannot be used to evaluate the amplification of propagation or increased fibrinolysis. Whole blood assays, such as TEG or ROTEM, provide rapid evaluation of clot formation, strength, and lysis, which reflect the entire hemostatic process [36,37]. There is emerging evidence for the clinical application of these bedside techniques during trauma. "
ABSTRACT: Managing trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock is complex and difficult. Despite our knowledge of the pathophysiology of hemorrhagic shock in trauma patients that we have accumulated during recent decades, the mortality rate of these patients remains high. In the acute phase of hemorrhage, the therapeutic priority is to stop the bleeding as quickly as possible. As long as this bleeding is uncontrolled, the physician must maintain oxygen delivery to limit tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and organ dysfunction. This process involves fluid resuscitation, the use of vasopressors, and blood transfusion to prevent or correct acute coagulopathy of trauma. The optimal resuscitative strategy is controversial. To move forward, we need to establish optimal therapeutic approaches with clear objectives for fluid resuscitation, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels to guide resuscitation and limit the risk of fluid overload and transfusion.01/2013; 3(1):1. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-3-1
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- "suggest more effective interventions . Wilson performed TEG every other day in 250 patients having undergone proximal femoral fracture repair and showed that patients suffering from postoperative DVT had a significantly higher level of hypercoagulability as measured by TEG than did those who did not suffer DVT . "
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to obtain the knowledge about TEG indexes distribution in Chinese aged people, as well as to test the hypothesis that previous TEG indexes are associated with the subsequent thromboembolic and bleeding events in the aged population. We conducted a two-year follow-up study in Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. 403 aged people were enrolled in our study. They received TEG measurements at least once when they entered this study. We collected their demographical characteristics, clinical examination information and their outcome during their observational period. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the relationship between the four indexes from TEG and the outcome via a pathway of indicator. We found that in the "model of bleeding" (adjusted by confounding of Anticoagulants), the model fit indices with chi-square/df = 9.555/7, CFI was 0.997, TLI was 0.994 and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was 0.034; while in the "model of thromboembolic events" (adjusted by confounding of Anticoagulants), the model fit indices with chi-square/df = 6.070/7, CFI was1.000, TLI was 1.002 and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) was 0.000. The "model of thromboembolic events" showed that the four indexes (R, K, MA and ANGLE) were all significantly associated with thromboembolic events, while this significance was not found in the "model of bleeding". Previous TEG indexes are significantly associated with the subsequent thromboembolic events in the aged population. Future study can test this association and provide more information for the clinical use.International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2013; 6(4):310-9. · 1.42 Impact Factor