Article

Influence of surface charge of PLGA particles of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen in enhancing systemic and mucosal immune responses.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, 1300 Coulter, Amarillo, TX 79106, United States.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Impact Factor: 3.99). 07/2009; 379(1):41-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.06.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study investigates the efficacy of surface-modified microspheres of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in eliciting systemic and mucosal immune responses. Positively charged poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent-evaporation method with cationic agents--stearylamine and polyethylenimine--in the external aqueous phase. Formulations were characterized for morphology, size, density, aerodynamic diameter, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug-release profile. Immunization was performed after pulmonary administration of the formulations to female Sprague-Dawley rats and the immune response was monitored by measuring IgG levels in serum and secretory (sIgA) levels in salivary, vaginal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. The cell-mediated immune response was studied by measuring cytokine levels in spleen homogenates, and a cytotoxicity study was performed with Calu-3 cell line. The aerodynamic diameter of the particles was within the respirable range, with the exception of stearylamine-modified particles. Zeta potential values moved from negative (-6.76 mV) for unmodified formulations to positive (+0.515 mV) for polyethylenimine-modified particles. Compared to unmodified formulations, polyethylenimine-based formulations showed continuous release of antigen over a period of 28-42 days and increased levels of IgG in serum and sIgA in salivary, vaginal and bronchoalveolar lavage. Further, cytokine levels-interferon gamma and interleukin-2-were increased in spleen homogenates. The viability of Calu-3 cells was not adversely affected by the microparticles. In summation, this study establishes that positive surface charges on poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles containing HBsAg enhances both the systemic and mucosal immune response upon immunization via the respiratory route.

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