Neonatal lipopolysaccharide and adult stress exposure predisposes rats to anxiety-like behaviour and blunted corticosterone responses: implications for the double-hit hypothesis.
ABSTRACT The double-hit hypothesis posits that an early life genetic or environmental insult sets up a neural predisposition to psychopathology, which may emerge in the presence of a subsequent insult, or 'second hit' in later life. The current study assessed the effect of neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on anxiety-like behaviours in the adult Wistar rat. Rats were administered either LPS (Salmonella enterica, serotype enteritidis, 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (equivolume) on days 3 and 5 of life (birth=day 1). In adulthood (85 days), subjects were allocated to either "stress" or "no stress" treatment groups. For the "stress" group, subjects were exposed to a three-day stress protocol consisting of a 30 min period of restraint and isolation. The "no stress" group was left unperturbed but were handled during this period to control for handling effects between adult "stress" and "no stress" conditions. All animals then underwent behavioural testing using standardised tests of anxiety-like behaviour, including either the Hide Box/Open Field, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) or Acoustic Startle Response (ASR). Time and event measures for restraint and isolation, the Hide Box/Open Field and EPM were recorded using automated tracking software. Startle amplitude and habituation across time was measured in the ASR test. Prior to and following behavioural test sessions, peripheral blood was collected to assess serum corticosterone and ACTH levels. Data analysis indicated that LPS-treated animals exposed to stress in adulthood exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviour across all behavioural tests compared to controls. Sexually dimorphic effects were observed with males exhibiting increased anxiety-related behaviours compared to females (p<.05). Neonatal LPS exposure induced a significant increase in corticosterone compared to controls (p<.05), whereas corticosterone responses to stress in adulthood were associated with a significantly blunted HPA axis response (p<.05). No differences in ACTH were observed. These results lend support to the double-hit hypothesis of anxiety-related behaviour, demonstrating that neonatal immune activation produces an enhanced propensity toward anxiety-related behaviour following stress in adulthood, and that this susceptibility is associated with alterations to HPA axis ontogeny.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which childhood abuse and neglect increase a person's risk for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to determine whether the relationship to PTSD persists despite controls for family, individual, and lifestyle characteristics associated with both childhood victimization and PTSD. Victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwestern metropolitan county area were matched on the basis of age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic class with a group of nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Subjects (N = 1,196) were located and administered a 2-hour interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule to assess PTSD. Childhood victimization was associated with increased risk for lifetime and current PTSD. Slightly more than a third of the childhood victims of sexual abuse (37.5%), 32.7% of those physically abused, and 30.6% of victims of childhood neglect met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime PTSD. The relationship between childhood victimization and number of PTSD symptoms persisted despite the introduction of covariates associated with risk for both. Victims of child abuse (sexual and physical) and neglect are at increased risk for developing PTSD, but childhood victimization is not a sufficient condition. Family, individual, and lifestyle variables also place individuals at risk and contribute to the symptoms of PTSD.American Journal of Psychiatry 09/1999; 156(8):1223-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The influence of the estrous cycle and the effects of exogenous administration of estradiol and progesterone on level of anxiety were studied in intact and ovariectomized rats. Intact Sprague-Dawley female rats were classified according to the stages of estrous cycle. Another group of rats was ovariectomized bilaterally and, 14 days after surgery, they received estradiol benzoate (10 μg/kg, SC) and/or progesterone (25 mg/kg, SC) or corn oil (1 ml/kg). The behavioral tests began 3 h after estradiol or 6 h after progesterone and consisted of: (1) exploration of an elevated plus-maze; and (2) retention of a passive avoidance response. Open-arm exploration of the plus-maze varied according to light intensity and the stages of the estrous cycle. There was a slight increase in open-arm exploration by rats in metestrus, under high light intensity. Low light intensity increased the exploration of the open arms by rats in proestrus and estrus, compared to the other phases of the cycle. Retention of the passive avoidance response was inhibited during proestrus and estrus. Progesterone increased open-arm exploration of the plus-maze under high light conditions, whereas estradiol antagonized this effect. Retention of passive avoidance was inhibited after estradiol or progesterone injection. These results suggest that the behavioral indices of anxiety can vary across the estrous cycle, that low light intensities have anxiolytic-like effects, and that the sensitivity to this effect is higher during proestrus and estrus. This could be explained through modulatory effects of ovarian hormones upon behavioral indices of anxiety.Psychoneuroendocrinology 11/1996; · 5.14 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation from dams would affect the development of parameters related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after animals are subjected to inescapable shock when adults. Wistar rats were subjected to repeated maternal separation during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, rats from both sexes were submitted to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. We observed long-lasting effects of both interventions. Exposure to shock increased fear conditioning. Anxiety-like behavior was increased and exploratory activity decreased by both treatments, and these effects were more robust in males. Additionally, basal corticosterone in plasma was decreased, paralleling effects observed in PTSD patients. Levels of S100B protein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured. Levels in serum correlated with the effects observed in anxiety-like behavior, increasing in males exposed to shock, and presenting no effect in females. S100B in CSF was increased in females submitted to maternal separation during the neonatal period. These results suggest that, in rats, an early stress experience such as maternal separation may aggravate some effects of exposure to a stressor during adult age, and that this effect is sex-specific. Additionally, data suggest that the increased S100B levels, observed in serum, have an extracerebral origin, possibly mediated by an increase in the noradrenergic tonus. Increased S100B in brain could be related to its neurotrophic actions.Brain Research 06/2007; 1144:107-16. · 2.88 Impact Factor