Blood lipids in children: age-related patterns and association with body-fat indices: Project HeartBeat!
ABSTRACT Longitudinal data on the normal development of blood lipids and its relationships with body fatness in children and adolescents are limited. Objectives of the current analysis were to estimate trajectories related to age for four blood lipid components and to examine the impact of change in body fatness on blood lipid levels, comparing estimated effects among adiposity indices, in children and adolescents.
Three cohorts, with a total of 678 children (49.1% female, 79.9% nonblack) initially aged 8, 11, and 14 years, were followed at 4-month intervals (1991-1995). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels were determined in blood samples taken following fasting. Body fatness was measured by five adiposity indices-BMI; percent body fat (PBF); abdominal circumference; and the sums of six and of two skinfold thicknesses. Trajectories of change in blood lipid levels from ages 8 to 18 years were estimated by gender and race. The impact of change in body fatness on lipid levels was evaluated for each index, adjusting for gender, race, and age.
All lipid components varied significantly with age. Total cholesterol decreased by approximately 19 mg/dL from ages 9 to 16 years in girls and more steeply from ages 10 to 17 years in boys. LDL-C decreased monotonically, more steeply in boys than in girls. It was higher among nonblacks than among blacks. HDL-C increased monotonically in girls, mainly from ages 14 to 18 years, but fluctuated sharply among boys. Levels of HDL-C were higher among blacks than among nonblacks. The levels of triglycerides increased from ages 8 to 12 years among girls and, almost linearly, from ages 8 to 18 years among boys. The levels of triglycerides were higher among nonblacks than among blacks. Increase in body fatness was significantly associated with increases in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels. Significant interactions between the adiposity indices (except for BMI) and gender indicated smaller impacts of change in body fatness on total cholesterol and LDL-C in girls than in boys. The estimated impact on triglycerides was weaker among blacks than among nonblacks, except for PBF. Change in body fatness was negatively associated with HDL-C. The results remained essentially unchanged after adjustments for energy intake, physical activity, and sexual maturation.
Patterns of change with age in blood lipid components vary significantly among gender and racial groups. Increase in body fatness among children is consistently associated with adverse change in blood lipids. Evaluation of blood lipid level should take into account variation by age, gender, and race. Intervention through body-fat control should help prevent adverse lipid levels in children and adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention for adolescent boys, an obesity prevention intervention using smartphone technology. METHODS: ATLAS was a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 14 secondary schools in low-income communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were 361 adolescent boys (aged 12–14 years) considered at risk of obesity. The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and involved: teacher professional development, provision of fitness equipment to schools, face-to-face physical activity sessions, lunchtime student mentoring sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application and Web site, and parental strategies for reducing screen-time. Outcome measures included BMI and waist circumference, percent body fat, physical activity (accelerometers), screen-time, sugar sweetened beverage intake, muscular fitness, and resistance training skill competency. RESULTS: Overall, there were no significant intervention effects for BMI, waist circumference, percent body fat, or physical activity. Significant intervention effects were found for screen-time (mean [SE]: –30 [10.08] min/d; P = .03), sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (mean: –0.6 [0.26] glass/d; P = .01), muscular fitness (mean: 0.9 [0.49] repetition; P = .04), and resistance training skills (mean: 5.7 [0.67] units; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: This school-based intervention targeting low-income adolescent boys did not result in significant effects on body composition, perhaps due to an insufficient activity dose. However, the intervention was successful in improving muscular fitness, movement skills, and key weight-related behaviors.Pediatrics 08/2014; 134(3):e723-e731. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-1012 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Whether dietary indexes are associated with biomarkers of children's dietary intake is unclear. The study aim was to examine the relations between diet quality and selected plasma biomarkers of dietary intake and serum lipid profile. The study sample consisted of 130 children aged 4-13 y (mean ± SD: 8.6 ± 2.9 y) derived by using baseline data from an intervention study. The Dietary Guideline Index for Children and Adolescents (DGI-CA) comprises the following 11 components with age-specific criteria: 5 core food groups, whole-grain bread, reduced-fat dairy foods, discretionary foods (nutrient poor; high in saturated fat, salt, and added sugar), healthy fats/oils, water, and diet variety (possible score of 100). A higher score reflects greater compliance with dietary guidelines. Venous blood was collected for measurements of serum lipids, fatty acid composition, plasma carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, and α-tocopherol. Linear regression was used to examine the relation between DGI-CA score (independent variable) and concentrations of biomarkers by using the log-transformed variable (outcome), controlling for confounders. DGI-CA score was positively associated (P < 0.05) with plasma concentrations of lutein (standardized β = 0.17), α-carotene (standardized β = 0.28), β-carotene (standardized β = 0.26), and n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (standardized β = 0.51) and inversely associated with plasma concentrations of lycopene (standardized β = -0.23) and stearic acid (18:0) (standardized β = -0.22). No association was observed between diet quality and α-tocopherol, n-6 fatty acids, or serum lipid profile (all P > 0.05). Diet quality, conceptualized as adherence to national dietary guidelines, is cross-sectionally associated with plasma biomarkers of dietary exposure but not serum lipid profile. This trial was registered with the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (www.anztr.org.au) as ACTRN12609000453280. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.Journal of Nutrition 01/2015; 145(1):128-33. DOI:10.3945/jn.114.197970 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interethnic differences exist in the distribution of serum lipids, with African–Americans (AAs) generally having a healthier lipid profile than other US ethnic groups. Similar lipid distributions are observed among other African-ancestry groups with distinct lifestyle characteristics, suggesting the importance of inherited factors. Despite healthier serum lipids, AAs experience a disproportionate burden of Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. As evidence of a different relationship between serum lipids and disease exists, the characterization of metabolic risk using lipid concentration (as in metabolic syndrome criteria) may lead to the underidentification of AAs at risk. Given the disproportionately high rate of metabolic disorders in AAs, understanding interethnic differences in the association between serum lipids and disease should be a research priority, as better appreciation of these differences will enhance knowledge of disease etiology, improve intervention targeting and may lead to mechanisms to ameliorate debilitating health disparities in the USA and globally.Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 01/2014; 7(6). DOI:10.1586/eem.12.55