Blood Lipids in Children: Age-Related Patterns and Association with Body-Fat Indices. Project HeartBeat!
ABSTRACT Longitudinal data on the normal development of blood lipids and its relationships with body fatness in children and adolescents are limited. Objectives of the current analysis were to estimate trajectories related to age for four blood lipid components and to examine the impact of change in body fatness on blood lipid levels, comparing estimated effects among adiposity indices, in children and adolescents.
Three cohorts, with a total of 678 children (49.1% female, 79.9% nonblack) initially aged 8, 11, and 14 years, were followed at 4-month intervals (1991-1995). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels were determined in blood samples taken following fasting. Body fatness was measured by five adiposity indices-BMI; percent body fat (PBF); abdominal circumference; and the sums of six and of two skinfold thicknesses. Trajectories of change in blood lipid levels from ages 8 to 18 years were estimated by gender and race. The impact of change in body fatness on lipid levels was evaluated for each index, adjusting for gender, race, and age.
All lipid components varied significantly with age. Total cholesterol decreased by approximately 19 mg/dL from ages 9 to 16 years in girls and more steeply from ages 10 to 17 years in boys. LDL-C decreased monotonically, more steeply in boys than in girls. It was higher among nonblacks than among blacks. HDL-C increased monotonically in girls, mainly from ages 14 to 18 years, but fluctuated sharply among boys. Levels of HDL-C were higher among blacks than among nonblacks. The levels of triglycerides increased from ages 8 to 12 years among girls and, almost linearly, from ages 8 to 18 years among boys. The levels of triglycerides were higher among nonblacks than among blacks. Increase in body fatness was significantly associated with increases in total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels. Significant interactions between the adiposity indices (except for BMI) and gender indicated smaller impacts of change in body fatness on total cholesterol and LDL-C in girls than in boys. The estimated impact on triglycerides was weaker among blacks than among nonblacks, except for PBF. Change in body fatness was negatively associated with HDL-C. The results remained essentially unchanged after adjustments for energy intake, physical activity, and sexual maturation.
Patterns of change with age in blood lipid components vary significantly among gender and racial groups. Increase in body fatness among children is consistently associated with adverse change in blood lipids. Evaluation of blood lipid level should take into account variation by age, gender, and race. Intervention through body-fat control should help prevent adverse lipid levels in children and adolescents.
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ABSTRACT: Project HeartBeat! was a longitudinal "growth" study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and body composition in childhood and adolescence. Its findings demonstrate patterns of change from ages 8 to 18 years in anthropometric indicators of adiposity, blood lipid components, and blood pressure measurements, as well as the varying inter-relations among these patterns. Especially noteworthy are differences among associations between the two components of BMI (kg/m(2))-the lean or fat-free mass index, and the fat mass index-and each of several CVD risk factors. Policy development and public health recommendations for CVD prevention beginning in childhood have evolved over 30 years or more. A new impetus to action is the recognized increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Intervention to prevent obesity can have a major impact in preventing CVD risk factors more broadly. Opportunities to strengthen interventions for CVD prevention in childhood and adolescence include updated algorithms for monitoring body composition, blood lipids, and blood pressure throughout childhood and adolescence through use of the Project HeartBeat! study results.American journal of preventive medicine 08/2009; 37(1 Suppl):S105-15. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.04.013 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) criterion for screening for hypercholesterolemia in children is family history of hypercholesterolemia or cardiovascular disease or BMI > or =85th percentile. This paper aims to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of dyslipidemia screening using AAP criteria along with either family history or BMI. Height, weight, plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, and family history were obtained for 678 children aged 8, 11, and 14 years, enrolled from 1991 to 1993 in Project HeartBeat!. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV screening of each lipid component using family history alone, BMI > or =85th percentile alone, or family history and/or BMI > or =85th percentile, were calculated using 2008 AAP criteria (total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides > or =90th percentile; HDL-C <10th percentile). Sensitivity of detecting abnormal total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides using family history alone ranged from 38% to 43% and significantly increased to 54%-66% using family history and/or BMI. Specificity significantly decreased from approximately 65% to 52%, and there were no notable changes in PPV. In black children, cholesterol screening using the BMI > or =85th percentile criterion had higher sensitivity than when using the family history criterion. In nonblacks, family history and/or BMI > or =85th percentile had greater sensitivity than family history alone. When the BMI screening criterion was used along with the family history criterion, sensitivity increased, specificity decreased, and PPV changed trivially for detection of dyslipidemia. Despite increased screening sensitivity by adding the BMI criterion, a clinically significant number of children still may be misclassified.American journal of preventive medicine 08/2009; 37(1 Suppl):S71-7. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.04.008 · 4.28 Impact Factor
- American journal of preventive medicine 08/2009; 37(1 Suppl):S3-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.04.015 · 4.28 Impact Factor