Modulation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells by Sarcoptes scabiei in combination with proinflammatory cytokines, histamine, and lipid-derived biologic mediators

Department of Pathology, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435, USA.
Cytokine (Impact Factor: 2.66). 07/2009; 47(2):103-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.cyto.2009.05.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, produces molecules that depress initiation of host inflammatory and immune responses. Some of these down-regulate expression of adhesion molecules or secretion of chemokines or cytokines on and by cultured dermal endothelial cells (HMVEC-D). This study was undertaken to determine if the response of HMVEC-D to scabies is altered in the presence of various proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1alpha, 1beta and 6), histamine, and lipid-derived mediators (prostaglandins D2 and E2, leukotriene B4, platelet activation factor) that likely occur in scabietic lesions in vivo. Scabies extract down-regulated the TNFalpha-induced expression of VCAM-1 by HMVEC-D and this down-regulation still occurred in the presence of the other proinflammatory cytokines, histamine or the lipid-derived mediators. Scabies inhibited the IL-1alpha and IL-1beta-induced secretion of IL-6, while a combination of scabies and histamine or LTB4 reduced the TNFalpha-induced secretion of IL-6. Scabies extract inhibited secretion of IL-8. Histamine, PGD2, PGE2, LTB4, PAF, and IL-6 alone had no effect on this inhibition, but the scabies-induced inhibition of IL-8 secretion was reduced in a dose-dependent fashion in the presence of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta.

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    • "For inoculation onto HSEs, the live mites collected onto the screen were washed by aspiration of sequential 4 mL volumes of phosphate-buffered saline with 0.05% Tween-20, endotoxin-free water (Lonza, Walkersville, MD) and 70% ethanol. For extract preparation, mites were washed as above, killed by freezing and later were ground on ice in a Ten Broeck homogenizer in 20 volumes (W/V) endotoxin-free water as previously described [21]. The soluble material was collected following centrifugation and the supernatant (extract) was sterile filtered into sterile vials. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin's protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host's protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71143. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071143 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "As in most of parasitosis, the severity of sarcoptic mange and the precise understanding of the host–parasite relationships depend, among other factors, on the parasitic load (Arlian et al., 1990; Davis and Moon, 1990). Recent studies provided evidences that mange modulates immunological defences (Kuhn et al., 2008; Elder et al., 2009; Fischer et al., 2009; Sarasa et al., 2010). The identification of the engaged molecules is still an ongoing process but it would be reasonable to expect the mite load, rather than lesions, to be a key factor of such physiological processes. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the influence of several factors, like the surface of skin with lesions attributable to Sarcoptes scabiei, the time of year and host sex and age on variations of mite load in Iberian wild goats, Capra pyrenaica, from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space, southern Spain. As well, the surface area of skin with scabietic lesions estimated during field surveys were compared with measurements taken in the laboratory and the potential for using categories based on surface areas estimated during monitoring and management programs was analyzed. The surface area of the skin lesions measured in the laboratory and the time of year were the main factors affecting mite load. Results also revealed discrepancies between the surface area of lesions estimated in the field and those measured in the laboratory. The highest error percentages were associated with lesions ranging between 25 and 75% of host skin surface area. By reducing the number of categories of mange infestation (from 5 to 3) the proportion of cases correctly classified using data from field surveys increases. Our analyses suggest that the estimated surface areas of scabietic lesions is a useful relative index of mite abundance and/or intensity of parasitation in Iberian wild goat. Therefore, we conclude that revised classifications should be used in the monitoring of sarcoptic mange in wild populations, since data can be obtained in an inexpensive, fast and non-invasive fashion.
    Veterinary Parasitology 11/2010; 176(2-3):258-64. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.11.002 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    • "effort) in mangy individuals (Forbes, 1993; Perrin et al., 1996) or a direct consequence of the impact of parasitism on host physiology and gonads (Baudoin, 1975). Recent studies provided direct and indirect evidences that mange modulates numerous physiological processes of the host, such as antioxidant (Dimri et al., 2008; Camkerten et al., 2009) and immunological defenses (Kuhn et al., 2008; Elder et al., 2009; Fischer et al., 2009; Sarasa et al., 2010a). The identification of the engaged molecules is still an ongoing process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Testes mass is a key factor in male reproductive success and is potentially exposed to so-called 'parasitic castration'. This is the result of the direct destruction or alteration of reproductive cell lineages (parasitic castration sensu stricto), or the indirect detrimental effects - for example, via body condition - on the ability of progenitors to produce or rear offspring (parasitic castration sensu lato). There are enormous gaps in our knowledge on the effects of parasites on the testes of wild mammals and in an attempt to rectify this dearth of data we examined the relationship between the skin parasite Sarcoptes scabiei and testes mass in Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica. We considered data from 222 males that were culled in the population from the Sierra Nevada in Spain. Our results provide evidence that sarcoptic mange is associated with reduced size-corrected testes mass in Iberian ibex which supports the hypothesis that parasitism is a determining factor in gonad plasticity in male mammals. We discuss several hypothetical causes of this relationship and highlight the need to deepen the sub-lethal effects of pathogens if we are to accurately understand their modulator effects on host population dynamics.
    Veterinary Parasitology 10/2010; 175(3-4):306-12. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.10.024 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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