Activated and non-activated PAMAM dendrimers for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT Nanotechnology, though not a new concept, has gained importance in medical breakthroughs. The preparation of nanosystems like polymeric nanoparticles can be used for drug and gene delivery. In this study dendrimeric nanoparticles prepared with generations 4 and 5 (G4, G5) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers and plasmid DNA were characterized and their ability to transfect cells in vitro and in vivo evaluated. Additionally, the efficacy of these dendrimers on activation after heat treatment has been tested to attempt an enhancement in transfection activity over that of intact dendrimers. Measurements of the particle size and zeta potential as a function of the charge ratio and the generation of the polymer reveal that no significant differences were obtained in size by using G4 or G5 polymers in nonactivated dendriplexes prepared at different charge ratios. The zeta potentials of the dendriplexes are strongly positive and differ only slightly. Atomic force microscopy images of complexes showed that they are spherical, individualized, and homogeneously distributed. These vectors were also highly effective in protecting DNA from attack by DNase I and increased the efficiency of plasmid-mediated gene transfer in vitro to liver (HepG2) and colon (CT26) cancer cells as compared with naked DNA, even in the presence of 60% fetal bovine serum. Expression is enhanced at higher charge ratios with maximal values obtained at a charge ratio of 10:1 (+/-) and by increasing the dendrimer generation. Finally, the transfection activity of G4 and G5 dendriplexes was significantly enhanced in HepG2 and CT26 cells by activation of the dendrimers. In this respect we have optimized the time of activation to obtain the optimal levels of gene expression. Also, intravenously administered activated G4 and G5 dendrimer-DNA complexes are superior to the nonactivated ones in terms of gene transfer efficiency in vivo. In conclusion, our results showed that G4 and G5 PAMAM dendrimers are an effective nanosystem for gene delivery to colon and liver cancer cells in vitro, as well as for in vivo therapeutic applications. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: This paper describes the synthesis and potential applications of mixed nanoparticles prepared with generations 4 and 5 (G4, G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and plasmid DNA. These mixed nanoparticles proved to be effective for gene delivery to colon and liver cancer cells in vitro, as well as in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Four cationic polymers used to deliver DNA into cultured cells: polylysine, intact polyamidoamine dendrimer, fractured polyamidoamine dendrimer and polyethylenimine, are examined for their ability to interact with DNA. Complexes between the polymers and DNA were examined using electron microscopy. Similar toroidal structures with diameters of 55 +/- 12 nm were formed from all of the cationic polymers with DNA. The DNA complexes of the fractured dendrimer and polyethylenimine were observed as single, distinct units; their apparent diameters in solution as measured by dynamic light scattering ranged from 90 to 130 nm. The DNA complexes of polylysine and intact dendrimer generally appeared as clusters in electron micrographs; their diameters in solution were larger than 1000 nm, which suggests that their toroidal complexes aggregate in solution. The cationic polymers bind to DNA in a stoichiometry that is nearly 1:1 in primary amines to DNA phosphates. The apparent binding of all cationic polymers to DNA decreases linearly with increasing ionic strength, up to 0.8 M NaCl. Thus, at the concentrations studied, these polymers interact electrostatically with DNA forming a unit structure with toroidal morphology; the extent of aggregation of the unit structures in solution depends upon the characteristics of the individual polymer.Gene Therapy 09/1997; 4(8):823-32. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have designed new basic amphiphilic peptides, ppTG1 and ppTG20 (20 amino acids), and evaluated their efficiencies in vitro and in vivo as single-component gene transfer vectors. ppTG1 and ppTG20 bind to nucleic acids and destabilize liposomes consisting of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) and cholesterol (3:1 mol/mol) at pH 5 and pH 7. Complexes of plasmid DNA and ppTG1 gave rise to efficient transfection in a variety of human and murine cell lines at low charge ratios ([+/-] between 1 and 2). In cell culture experiments, such vectors were superior to the membrane-destabilizing peptide KALA. In comparison with cationic lipid-, dendrimer-, and polymer-based transfection agents like Superfect, polyethylenimine (PEI), and Lipofectin, ppTG1 vectors showed good transfection efficiencies, especially at low DNA doses. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time successful gene transfer in living animals with a single-component peptide vector. In the mouse, intravenous injection of a luciferase expression plasmid complexed with ppTG1 or ppTG20 led to significant gene expression in the lung 24 hours after injection. Structure-function studies with ppTG1, ppTG20, and sequence variants suggest that the high gene transfer activity of these peptides is correlated with their propensity to exist in alpha-helical conformation, which seems to be strongly influenced by the nature of the hydrophobic amino acids.Molecular Therapy 03/2002; 5(2):104-14. · 7.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most of the cationic lipids used for gene transfer experiments drastically lose their efficiency in the presence of serum. We used a cationic lipid with a spermine head group and its fluorescent analog to study the cellular uptake and the intracellular fate of lipoplexes in the presence and absence of serum. We found that the amount of DNA and lipid taken up by the cells was not related to the efficacy of the gene transfer. When the lipofection was performed in the presence of serum, lipoplexes were contained within small intracellular vesicles. In the absence of serum, the vesicles were larger and heterogeneous in size and shape. By analysis of their size distribution, we showed that lipoplexes preformed in the absence of serum tended to aggregate. This aggregation was inhibited in the presence of serum. We used a carbonate formulation that led to the preformation of large particles: those large particles gave a high lipofection efficiency in the presence of serum and their intracellular distribution was identical to that observed in the absence of serum.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/1998; 1368(2):276-88. · 4.66 Impact Factor