Massive pulmonary embolism associated with Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations in a young patient on oral contraceptive pills: a case report.
ABSTRACT Factor V Leiden (Factor V G1691A), prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, and homozygous C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are known to predispose venous thromboembolism (VTE). We present herein a rare case of a young woman heterozygous for these mutations and taking oral contraceptive pills for less than 2 months, diagnosed to have massive deep venous thrombosis and bilateral pulmonary embolism. The patient was managed for 10 days in the hospital and discharged home on oral anticoagulants. This case suggests that screening for these factors in people with family history of thrombosis and in relatives of patients with these mutations is highly recommended to prevent fatal consequences. In addition, a new guideline for treatment and prophylaxis with anticoagulant for these patients and others who are at risk of developing VTE (American College of Chest Physicians [ACCP] guidelines-Chest 2008) has been published recently. Our recommendation is to promote for the internationally published algorithms through their application, where necessary, to prevent any future thrombotic morbidity or mortality incidents.
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene could reduce the enzyme activity and lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, a condition that has been associated with several vascular conditions, in particular, coronary artery disease and deep vein thrombosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the two most common polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C, which have not been well studied in the Lebanese population. We randomly selected 205 healthy individuals originating from different Lebanese provinces and religious communities. The CVD StripAssay was used to test for MTHFR gene polymorphisms. We found that for C677T, the prevalence of C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes was 65.3%, 30.8%, and 3.9%, respectively, with an overall carrier rate of 34.6% and allelic frequency of 0.19. However, the A1298C genotypic prevalence of A/C, A/A, and C/C was 50.2%, 25.9%, and 23.9%, respectively, with an overall carrier rate of 74.14% and an allelic frequency of 0.49. Compared to all other populations reported so far, the Lebanese population harbors the highest prevalence of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism. This is an important finding to be followed in terms of clinical significance and sheds light on an additional unique genetic feature in this community.Genetic Testing 04/2008; 12(1):75-80. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The factor II (prothrombin) G20210A gene polymorphism is the second most common SNP reported in VTE where it is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and with a 3-fold increased risk. We studied the distribution of the G/G, G/A, and A/A genotypes of the Prothrombin G20210A gene mutation in the general Lebanese population using a novel technique in order to assess their prevalence, compare the results to previously reported data and to describe an available method that will permit easy and fast identification of the mutation. Prothrombin different genotypes were determined using the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) StripAssay which is based on a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Reverse hybridization technique and DNA from 205 unrelated healthy donors from our HLA-bank was used. The prevalence of G/G, G/A, and A/A genotypes was found to be 98.54, 1.46, and 0%, respectively, with G and A allelic frequency of 99 and 1%, respectively. The sampled Lebanese population showed prothrombin genotypes distribution similar to Caucasians, and our results are comparable to other reports on the Lebanese healthy individuals. However, this is the first report on the prevalence of prothrombin G20210A mutation using this technique. Our results suggest that this approach is reliable and can be used as an assessment for thrombophilia profile. In addition, future investigations should be conducted to assess the contribution of the prothrombin G20210A mutation, on its own and in collaboration with other factors, in various clinical entities notably VTE.Molecular Biology Reports 01/2008; 36(2):399-403. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Point mutations in the factor V gene (factor V Leiden) and the prothrombin gene (the substitution of A for G at position 20210) are the most common causes of inherited thrombophilia. Whether or not factor V Leiden increases the risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis is controversial, and there is no information on the risk of recurrence among carriers of both mutations. We studied a retrospective cohort of 624 patients who were referred for a first episode of deep venous thrombosis. After excluding 212 patients with other inherited or acquired causes of thrombophilia, we compared 112 patients who were heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden with 17 patients who were heterozygous for both factor V Leiden and the prothrombin mutation and 283 patients who had neither mutation. The relative risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis was calculated with use of a proportional-hazards model. Patients who were heterozygous for factor V Leiden alone had a risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis that was similar to that among patients who had neither mutation (relative risk, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 1.6; P=0.76). In contrast, patients who were heterozygous for both factor V Leiden and the prothrombin mutation had a higher risk of recurrent thrombosis than did carriers of factor V Leiden alone (relative risk, 2.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.1; P=0.002). When the analysis was restricted to patients with spontaneous recurrences (i.e., ones that occurred in the absence of transient risk factors for venous thrombosis), the risk among carriers of both mutations, as compared with carriers of factor V Leiden alone, remained high (relative risk, 3.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 7.7; P<0.001), particularly if the first event had also been spontaneous (relative risk, 5.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.0 to 14.1; P<0.001). In contrast, the risk of recurrence in the presence of transient risk factors was similar among carriers of both mutations and carriers of factor V Leiden alone. The risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis is similar among carriers of factor V Leiden and patients without this mutation. Carriers of both factor V Leiden and the G20210A prothrombin mutation have an increased risk of recurrent deep venous thrombosis after a first episode and are candidates for lifelong anticoagulation.New England Journal of Medicine 09/1999; 341(11):801-6. · 51.66 Impact Factor