Predictors of inotrope use in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and aortic valve replacement (AVR) surgeries at separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)

Department of Hospital Medicine, Regions Hospital, University of Minnesota Medical School, St Paul, Minnesota, USA.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.03). 07/2009; 4(1):24. DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-4-24
Source: PubMed


Left ventricular dysfunction is common after coronary artery bypass graft and valve replacement surgeries and is often treated with inotropic drugs to maintain adequate hemodynamic status. In this study, we aimed to identify the demographic, clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic and hemodynamic factors that are associated with use of inotropic drugs in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass graft and aortic valve replacement surgery.
The study included 97 patients who had undergone concomitant coronary artery bypass graft and aortic valve replacement at Regions Hospital, University of Minnesota Medical School from January 2006 to December 2008. All data were collected retrospectively after reviewing electronic medical records. Inotropic support was defined as the use of dopamine [greater than or equal to] 5 ug/kg/min; any dose of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dobutamine, and milrinone at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass.
Inotropic support was used in a total of 50 patients (52%) at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Average age of the patients requiring inotropic support was 72.2 +/- 8.8 years. The study identified four significant, independent predictors of inotrope use: (1) Cardiac index [less than or equal to] 2.5 L/min/m2, (2) LVEDP [greater than or equal to] 20 mm Hg, (3) LVEF [less than or equal to] 40%, and (4) CKD stage 3 to 5.
We identified four independent risk factors for postoperative use of inotropic support in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass graft and arotic valve replacement surgery at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. The study results will be helpful to prospectively identify patients who will likely to require inotropic support at the separation from cardiopulmonary bypass.

Download full-text


Available from: Chad M House, Oct 06, 2015
1 Follower
22 Reads
  • Source
    • "In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) is a disastrous event that can result in life-threatening complications [1] [2]. With LCOS, the mortality rate of these patients can be as high as 16.9% (versus 0.9% without LCOS) [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In cardiac surgery, postoperative low cardiac output has been shown to correlate with increased rates of organ failure and mortality. Catecholamines have been the standard therapy for many years, although they carry substantial risk for adverse cardiac and systemic effects, and have been reported to be associated with increased mortality. On the other hand, the calcium sensitiser and potassium channel opener levosimendan has been shown to improve cardiac function with no imbalance in oxygen consumption, and to have protective effects in other organs. Numerous clinical trials have indicated favourable cardiac and non-cardiac effects of preoperative and perioperative administration of levosimendan. A panel of 27 experts from 18 countries has now reviewed the literature on the use of levosimendan in on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and in heart valve surgery. This panel discussed the published evidence in these various settings, and agreed to vote on a set of questions related to the cardioprotective effects of levosimendan when administered preoperatively, with the purpose of reaching a consensus on which patients could benefit from the preoperative use of levosimendan and in which kind of procedures, and at which doses and timing should levosimendan be administered. Here, we present a systematic review of the literature to report on the completed and ongoing studies on levosimendan, including the newly commenced LEVO-CTS phase III study (NCT02025621), and on the consensus reached on the recommendations proposed for the use of preoperative levosimendan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    International Journal of Cardiology 04/2015; 184(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.02.022 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Low cardiac output syndrome is a common complication in patients undergoing cardiac surgery [1]. The aetiology is multifactorial and is believed to be related to a combination of myocardial ischaemia, reperfusion injury, cardioplegia-induced myocardial dysfunction and preexisting cardiac disease [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute haemodynamic complications are common after cardiac surgery and optimal perioperative use of inotropic agents, typically guided by haemodynamic variables, remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of inotrope use to hospital mortality and renal dysfunction. A retrospective cohort study of 1,326 cardiac surgery patients was carried out at two university-affiliated ICUs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and propensity matching were performed to evaluate whether inotrope exposure was independently associated with mortality and renal dysfunction. Patients exposed to inotropes had a higher mortality rate than those not exposed. After adjusting for differences in Parsonnet score, left ventricular ejection fraction, perioperative intraaortic balloon pump use, bypass time, reoperation and cardiac index, inotrope exposure appeared to be independently associated with increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2 to 4.5) and renal dysfunction (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 4.6). A propensity score-matched analysis similarly demonstrated that death and renal dysfunction were significantly more likely to occur in patients exposed to inotropes (P = 0.01). Postoperative inotrope exposure was independently associated with worse outcomes in this cohort study. Further research is needed to better elucidate the appropriate use of inotropes in cardiac surgery.
    Critical care (London, England) 07/2011; 15(4):R162. DOI:10.1186/cc10302 · 4.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Second, accelerated apoptosis of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes may further decrease mechanical cardiac efficiency and has been shown to correlate with increased release of troponin following aortic valve surgery [30,31]. Third, LV diastolic dysfunction often coexists with latent or patent alterations in systolic LV function that corresponds to the clinical syndrome of congestive heart failure and the functional states of elevated LV end-diastolic pressure or low LV ejection fraction which are all considered strong predictors of LV dysfunction, cardiac complications and mortality after cardiac surgery [2,3,5-8,32]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction frequently occurs after cardiac surgery, requiring inotropic treatment and/or mechanical circulatory support. In this study, we aimed to identify clinical, surgical and echocardiographic factors that are associated with LV dysfunction during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in high-risk patients undergoing valve replacement for aortic stenosis. Perioperative data were prospectively collected in 108 surgical candidates with an expected operative mortality >or=9%. All anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Reduced LV systolic function was defined by an ejection fraction <40%. Diastolic function of the LV was assessed using standard Doppler-derived parameters, tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) and transmitral flow propagation velocity (Vp). Doppler-derived pulmonary flow indices and TDI could not be obtained in 14 patients. In the remaining 94 patients, poor systolic LV was documented in 14% (n = 12) and diastolic dysfunction in 84% of patients (n = 89), all of whom had Vp <50 cm/s. During weaning from CPB, 38 patients (40%) required inotropic and/or mechanical circulatory support. By multivariate regression analysis, we identified three independent predictors of LV systolic dysfunction: age (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.22), aortic clamping time (OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.08) and Vp (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.81). Among echocardiographic measurements, Vp was found to be superior in terms of prognostic value and reliability. The best cut-off value for Vp to predict LV dysfunction was 40 cm/s (sensitivity of 72% and specificity 94%). Patients who experienced LV dysfunction presented higher in-hospital mortality (18.4% vs. 3.6% in patients without LV dysfunction, P = 0.044) and an increased incidence of serious cardiac events (81.6 vs. 28.6%, P < 0.001). This study provides the first evidence that, besides advanced age and prolonged myocardial ischemic time, LV diastolic dysfunction characterized by Vp <or= 40 cm/sec identifies patients who will require cardiovascular support following valve replacement for aortic stenosis.
    Critical care (London, England) 06/2010; 14(3):R101. DOI:10.1186/cc9040 · 4.48 Impact Factor
Show more