Potential of selective estrogen receptor modulators as treatments and preventives of breast cancer.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, 333 Cottman Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA.
Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 07/2009; 9(5):481-99.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Estrogen plays vital roles in human health and diseases. Estrogen mediates its actions almost entirely by binding to estrogen receptors (ER), alpha and beta which further function as transcription factors. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are synthetic molecules which bind to ER and can modulate its transcriptional capabilities in different ways in diverse estrogen target tissues. Tamoxifen, the prototypical SERM, is extensively used for targeted therapy of ER positive breast cancers and is also approved as the first chemo-preventive agent for lowering breast cancer incidence in high risk women. The therapeutic and preventive efficacy of tamoxifen was initially proven by series of experiments in the laboratory which laid the foundation of its clinical use. Unfortunately, use of tamoxifen is associated with de-novo and acquired resistance and some undesirable side effects. The molecular study of the resistance provides an opportunity to precisely understand the mechanism of SERM action which may further help in designing new and improved SERMs. Recent clinical studies reveal that another SERM, raloxifene, which is primarily used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis, is as efficient as tamoxifen in preventing breast cancers with fewer side effects. Overall, these findings open a new horizon for SERMs as a class of drug which not only can be used for therapeutic and preventive purposes of breast cancers but also for various other diseases and disorders. Major efforts are therefore directed to make new SERMs with a better therapeutic profile and fewer side effects.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and selective HPLC-MS/MS assay was used to analyze steady-state serum concentrations of tamoxifen, N-desmethyltamoxifen (E)-endoxifen, (Z)-endoxifen, N-desmethyl-4'-hydroxytamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, and 4'-hydroxytamoxifen to support therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in patients treated with tamoxifen according to standard of care. When the (Z)-endoxifen serum concentration was below the predefined therapeutic threshold concentration of 5.9 ng/mL, the clinician was advised to increase the tamoxifen dose and to collect another serum sample. Paired serum samples from patients at one dose level at different time points during the tamoxifen treatment were used to assess the intra-patient variability. A total of 251 serum samples were analyzed, obtained from 205 patients. Of these patients, 197 used 20 mg tamoxifen per day and 8 patients used 10 mg/day. There was wide variability in tamoxifen and metabolite concentrations within the dosing groups. The threshold concentration for (Z)-endoxifen was reached in one patient (12 %) in the 10 mg group, in 153 patients (78 %) in the 20 mg group, and in 26 (96 %) of the patients who received a dose increase to 30 or 40 mg/day. Dose increase from 20 to 30 or 40 mg per day resulted in a significant increase in the mean serum concentrations of all analytes (p < 0.001). The mean intra-patient variability was between 10 and 20 % for all analytes. These results support the suitability of TDM for optimizing the tamoxifen treatment. It is shown that tamoxifen dose is related to (Z)-endoxifen exposure and increasing this dose leads to a higher serum concentration of tamoxifen and its metabolites. The low intra-patient variability suggests that only one serum sample is needed for TDM, making this a relatively noninvasive way to optimize the patient's treatment.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To generate the first series of prodigiosene conjugates, the tripyrrolic skeleton was appended to estrone, tamoxifen and porphyrin frameworks by way of ester linkers and various hydrocarbon chain lengths. The ability of the conjugates to inhibit various types of cancer cells was evaluated in vitro. The porphyrin conjugates did not exhibit significant activity. The estrone conjugates exhibited modest activity, for the most part. However, significantly greater growth inhibition activity against certain breast, colon, lung, leukemia, melanoma and prostate cell lines was noted. This unusual effect for this first generation model class of compound warrants further investigation and comparison to cases where estrogens are linked to prodigiosenes via connection points that do not feature in estrogen receptor binding. The 4-hydroxytamoxifen conjugates exhibit nanomolar range activity against the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, paving the way to expand the scope and connectivity of prodigiosene-tamoxifen conjugates.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 07/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seventy percent of breast cancers express estrogen receptor (ER), and most of these are sensitive to ER inhibition. However, many such tumors for unknown reasons become refractory to inhibition of estrogen action in the metastatic setting. We conducted a comprehensive genetic analysis of two independent cohorts of metastatic ER-positive breast tumors and identified mutations in ESR1 affecting the ligand-binding domain (LBD) in 14 of 80 cases. These included highly recurrent mutations encoding p.Tyr537Ser, p.Tyr537Asn and p.Asp538Gly alterations. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the structures of the Tyr537Ser and Asp538Gly mutants involve hydrogen bonding of the mutant amino acids with Asp351, thus favoring the agonist conformation of the receptor. Consistent with this model, mutant receptors drive ER-dependent transcription and proliferation in the absence of hormone and reduce the efficacy of ER antagonists. These data implicate LBD-mutant forms of ER in mediating clinical resistance to hormonal therapy and suggest that more potent ER antagonists may be of substantial therapeutic benefit.
    Nature Genetics 11/2013; · 35.21 Impact Factor