Summary of a workshop on nonclinical and clinical immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory drugs.
ABSTRACT The number of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs being developed in the pharmaceutical industry has increased considerably in the past decade. This increase in research and development has been paralleled by questions from both regulatory agencies and industry on how best to assess decreased host resistance to infections or adverse immunostimulation caused by immunomodulatory agents such as anti-cytokine antibodies (e.g., the tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors), anti-adhesion molecule antibodies (e.g., anti-alpha-4 integrin inhibitors) and immunostimulatory molecules (e.g., anti-CD28 antibodies). Although several methods have been developed for nonclinical assessment of immunotoxicity, highly publicized adverse events have brought to light significant gaps in the application of nonclinical immunotoxicity testing in assessing potential risk in humans. Confounding this problem is inconsistent application of immunotoxicology methods for risk assessment within the scientific community, limited understanding of appropriate immunotoxicity testing strategy for immunomodulators and inconsistent testing requests by regulatory agencies. To address these concerns, The Immunotoxicology Technical Committee (ITC) of the International Life Science Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized a workshop on Immunomodulators and Clinical Immunotoxicology in May 2007. The Workshop was convened to identify key gaps in nonclinical and clinical immunotoxicity testing of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory agents and to begin to develop consistent approaches for immunotoxicity testing and risk assessment. This paper summarizes the outcome of the HESI ITC Immunomodulators and Clinical Immunotoxicology Workshop. Topics not discussed at the Workshop were outside the scope of this report. Although more work is needed to develop consistent approaches for immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulators, this Workshop provided the foundation for future discussion.
- Human & Experimental Toxicology 05/2000; 19(4):226-8. · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reactivation of latent tuberculosis contributes significantly to the incidence of disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The mechanisms involved in the containment of latent tuberculosis are poorly understood. Using the low-dose model of persistent murine tuberculosis in conjunction with MP6-XT22, a monoclonal antibody that functionally neutralizes tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we examined the effects of TNF-alpha on the immunological response of the host in both persistent and reactivated tuberculous infections. The results confirm an essential role for TNF-alpha in the containment of persistent tuberculosis. TNF-alpha neutralization resulted in fatal reactivation of persistent tuberculosis characterized by a moderately increased tissue bacillary burden and severe pulmonic histopathological deterioration that was associated with changes indicative of squamous metaplasia and fluid accumulation in the alveolar space. Analysis of pulmonic gene and protein expression of mice in the low-dose model revealed that nitric oxide synthase was attenuated during MP6-XT22-induced reactivation, but was not totally suppressed. Interleukin-12p40 and gamma interferon gene expression in TNF-alpha-neutralized mice was similar to that in control mice. In contrast, interleukin-10 expression was augmented in the TNF-alpha-neutralized mice. In summary, results of this study suggest that TNF-alpha plays an essential role in preventing reactivation of persistent tuberculosis, modulates the pulmonic expression of specific immunologic factors, and limits the pathological response of the host.Infection and Immunity 04/2001; 69(3):1847-55. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is important in resistance to various microorganisms and provides signals to the target cells through two different receptors, TNF-alpha receptor I (TNFRI) (p55 receptor) and TNFRII (p75 receptor). To delineate the significance of the two different signaling pathways in resisting infections with extracellular bacteria, we examined the resistance of mice to Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotype 6B). TNF-alpha needs to be present early in infections, since one injection of wild-type mice with anti-TNF-alpha leads to an increased susceptibility of these mice to S. pneumoniae. TNF-alpha signaling through the p55 receptor (but not the p75 receptor) is crucial in resisting S. pneumoniae infections, because intraperitoneal injection of 100 CFU/mouse killed p55-deficient mice by day 2 of infection, whereas 1,000,000 CFU/mouse was needed to kill half of the control mice. p55-deficient mice do not show evidence of a deficient acute-phase response. All three types of mice (p55 deficient, p75 deficient, and normal) showed comparable rises in the levels of two acute-phase proteins (serum amyloid P and C3) at 24, 48, and 72 h after the experimental infections, and all of the mice showed comparable influxes of neutrophils to the site of infection. Finally, it was demonstrated that p55-deficient mice can be protected from the lethal effects of S. pneumoniae infection by injection of antibodies specific for S. pneumoniae polysaccharide capsule.Infection and Immunity 03/1999; 67(2):595-601. · 4.07 Impact Factor