Article

Genomic Profiling of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Refining Prognosis and Identifying Therapeutic Targets

Annals of Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 06/2014; 21(12). DOI: 10.1245/s10434-014-3828-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The molecular alterations that drive tumorigenesis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remain poorly defined. We sought to determine the incidence and prognostic significance of mutations associated with ICC among patients undergoing surgical resection. Multiplexed mutational profiling was performed using nucleic acids that were extracted from 200 resected ICC tumor specimens from 7 centers. The frequency of mutations was ascertained and the effect on outcome was determined. The majority of patients (61.5 %) had no genetic mutation identified. Among the 77 patients (38.5 %) with a genetic mutation, only a small number of gene mutations were identified with a frequency of > 5 %: IDH1 (15.5 %) and KRAS (8.6 %). Other genetic mutations were identified in very low frequency: BRAF (4.9 %), IDH2 (4.5 %), PIK3CA (4.3 %), NRAS (3.1 %), TP53 (2.5 %), MAP2K1 (1.9 %), CTNNB1 (0.6 %), and PTEN (0.6 %). Among patients with an IDH1-mutant tumor, approximately 7 % were associated with a concurrent PIK3CA gene mutation or a mutation in MAP2K1 (4 %). No concurrent mutations in IDH1 and KRAS were noted. Compared with ICC tumors that had no identified mutation, IDH1-mutant tumors were more often bilateral (odds ratio 2.75), while KRAS-mutant tumors were more likely to be associated with R1 margin (odds ratio 6.51) (both P < 0.05). Although clinicopathological features such as tumor number and nodal status were associated with survival, no specific mutation was associated with prognosis. Most somatic mutations in resected ICC tissue are found at low frequency, supporting a need for broad-based mutational profiling in these patients. IDH1 and KRAS were the most common mutations noted. Although certain mutations were associated with ICC clinicopathological features, mutational status did not seemingly affect long-term prognosis.

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Available from: Darrell R Borger, Oct 07, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC) are relatively rare malignant tumors associated with a poor prognosis. Recent studies using genome-wide sequencing technologies have mainly focused on identifying new driver mutations. There is nevertheless a need to investigate the spectrum of copy number aberrations in order to identify potential target genes in the altered chromosomal regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the patterns of chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs) in ICC. 53 patients having ICC with frozen material were selected. In 47 cases, DNA hybridization has been performed on a genomewide SNP array. A procedure with a segmentation step and a calling step classified genomic regions into copy-number aberration states. We identified the exclusively amplified and deleted recurrent genomic areas. These areas are those showing the highest estimated propensity level for copy loss (resp. copy gain) together with the lowest level for copy gain (resp. copy loss). We investigated ICC clustering. We analyzed the relationships between CNAs and clinico-pathological characteristics. The overall genomic profile of ICC showed many alterations with higher rates for the deletions. Exclusively deleted genomic areas were 1p, 3p and 14q. The main exclusively amplified genomic areas were 1q, 7p, 7q and 8q. Based on the exclusively deleted/amplified genomic areas, a clustering analysis identified three tumors groups: the first group characterized by copy loss of 1p and copy gain of 7p, the second group characterized by 1p and 3p copy losses without 7p copy gain, the last group characterized mainly by very few CNAs. From univariate analyses, the number of tumors, the size of the largest tumor and the stage were significantly associated with shorter time recurrence. We found no relationship between the number of altered cytobands or tumor groups and time to recurrence. This study describes the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations across the whole genome. Some of the recurrent exclusive CNAs harbor candidate target genes. Despite the absence of correlation between CNAs and clinico-pathological characteristics, the co-occurence of 7p gain and 1p loss in a subgroup of patients may suggest a differential activation of EGFR and its downstream pathways, which may have a potential effect on targeted therapies.
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