Normal ovarian function and assessment of ovarian reserve in the survivor of childhood cancer.
ABSTRACT Increasingly young people survive cancer in childhood and as a result complications of its treatment are becoming more common and important. Premature ovarian failure is recognized as a complication of radiotherapy to a field that includes the pelvis and alkylating-agent-based chemotherapy. Young pre-pubertal girls are not protected from the effects of gonadal toxic therapy. A young woman, successfully treated for cancer during childhood, may experience regular periods in the presence of a significantly reduced ovarian reserve. There is, however, no reliable measure of ovarian reserve available for the individual woman. Assessment of ovarian function relies on the use of surrogate markers such as follicle stimulating hormone, inhibin-B, and anti-mullerian hormone as well as ultrasound assessment of ovarian volume and antral follicle count. We discuss the physiology of normal ovarian function, the effects of cancer treatments on ovarian function and the techniques for evaluation of ovarian reserve in survivors of childhood cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Gonadal dysfunction is one of the major endocrinological late effects among childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). Periodic screening evaluation of gonadotropins and sex steroids has been recommended, although it remains difficult to predict gonadal function and reproductive capacity in childhood. We evaluated the effects of cancer treatments on the ovarian function of Japanese female CCSs by measuring serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and gonadotropin. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study at a single hospital. Results: Among 53 female CCSs, 28 (53%) had a decreased AMH level, while only 16 (30%) had an increased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. AMH was low in all patients with high FSH, while FSH was not elevated in 43% of patients with a low AMH level. AMH was low in 8 of 9 patients with no breast development, 11 of 14 patients with no spontaneous menstruation, and 3 of 22 patients with regular menstrual cycles. Conclusion: Measurement of AMH concentration is useful as a marker of ovarian reserve in female CCSs for detecting primary gonadal deficiency, particularly among patients without increased gonadotropin levels.Hormone Research in Paediatrics 12/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
- Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 07/2014; · 0.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Premature ovarian failure and infertility are major side effects of chemotherapy treatments in young cancer patients. A more thorough understanding of the mechanism behind chemotherapy-induced follicle loss is necessary to develop new methods to preserve fertility in these patients. We show that the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (Cy) activates the growth of the quiescent primordial follicle population in mice, resulting in loss of ovarian reserve. Despite the initial massive apoptosis observed in growing, though not in resting, follicles of Cy-treated mice, differential follicle counts demonstrated both a decrease in primordial follicles and an increase in early growing follicles. Immunohistochemistry showed that granulosa cells were undergoing proliferation. Analysis of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway demonstrated that Cy increased phosphorylation of proteins that stimulate follicle activation in the oocytes and granulosa cells. Coadministration of an immunomodulator, AS101, reduced follicle activation, thereby increasing follicle reserve and rescuing fertility after Cy, and also increased the efficacy of Cy against breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that the mechanism in Cy-induced loss of ovarian reserve is accelerated primordial follicle activation, which results in a "burnout" effect and follicle depletion. By preventing this activation, AS101 shows potential as an ovarian-protective agent, which may be able to preserve fertility in female cancer patients.Science translational medicine 05/2013; 5(185):185ra62. · 14.41 Impact Factor