[Atrial fibrillation ablation: who comes into consideration?].
ABSTRACT Atrial fibrillation ablation is, since the introduction of the guidelines in 2006 and which were updated in 2007, now a standard procedure in many electrophysiological centers. Pulmonary vein isolation has proven itself as a way to eliminate focal triggers. From pathophysiological studies of atrial fibrillation development, it is known that ablation performed early in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation has the highest chance for success. In patients with persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation, success rates are lower and repeat interventions are needed more often. Therefore, continuation of antiarrhythmic drug therapy is often necessary in these patient groups. Thus, the curative use of ablation for atrial fibrillation is only possible with the current techniques for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
- SourceAvailable from: Salvatore Rosanio[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Circumferential radiofrequency ablation around pulmonary vein (PV) ostia has recently been described as a new anatomic approach for atrial fibrillation (AF). We treated 251 consecutive patients with paroxysmal (n=179) or permanent (n=72) AF. Circular PV lesions were deployed transseptally during sinus rhythm (n=124) or AF (n=127) using 3D electroanatomic guidance. Procedures lasted 148+/-26 minutes. Among 980 lesions surrounding individual PVs (n=956) or 2 ipsilateral veins with close openings or common ostium (n=24), 75% were defined as complete by a bipolar electrogram amplitude <0.1 mV inside the lesion and a delay >30 ms across the line. The amount of low-voltage encircled area was 3594+/-449 mm(2), which accounted for 23+/-9% of the total left atrial (LA) map surface. Major complications (cardiac tamponade) occurred in 2 patients (0.8%). No PV stenoses were detected by transesophageal echocardiography. After 10.4+/-4.5 months, 152 patients with paroxysmal AF (85%) and 49 with permanent AF (68%) were AF-free. Patients with and without AF recurrence did not differ in age, AF duration, prevalence of heart disease, or ejection fraction, but the LA diameter was significantly higher (P<0.001) in permanent AF patients with recurrence. The proportion of PVs with complete lesions was similar between patients with and without recurrence, but the latter had larger low-voltage encircled areas after radiofrequency (expressed as percent of LA surface area; P<0.001). Circumferential PV ablation is a safe and effective treatment for AF. Its success is likely due to both PV trigger isolation and electroanatomic remodeling of the area encompassing the PV ostia.Circulation 11/2001; 104(21):2539-44. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The left atrial appendage (LAA) has been proven to be the most important site of thrombus formation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the information regarding the morphometric alteration of the LAA related to the outcome of AF ablation is still lacking. Thus, we evaluated the long-term changes of the LAA morphology in patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Group 1 included 15 controls without any AF history. Group 2 included 40 patients with drug-refractory paroxysmal AF. They were divided into two subgroups: group 2a included 30 patients without AF recurrence after pulmonary vein (PV) ablation. Group 2b included 10 patients with late recurrence of AF. The LAA morphology before and after (20 +/- 11 months) ablation was evaluated by three-dimensional MRA. The group 2 patients had a larger baseline LAA size (including the LAA orifice, neck, and length) and less eccentric LAA orifice and neck. After the AF ablation, there was a significant reduction in the LAA size in the group 2a patients, and the morphology of the LAA neck became more eccentric during the follow-up period. In group 2b, the LAA size increased and no significant change in the eccentricity of the orifice and neck could be noted. The morphometric remodeling of the LAA in the AF patients could be reversed after a successful ablation of the AF. Progressive dilation of the LAA was noted in the patients with AF recurrence. These structural changes in the LAA may play a role in reducing the potential risk of cerebrovascular accidents.Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2007; 18(1):47-52. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The extent of ostial ablation necessary to electrically disconnect the pulmonary vein (PV) myocardial extensions that initiate atrial fibrillation from the left atrium has not been determined. Seventy patients underwent PV mapping with a circumferential 10-electrode catheter during sinus rhythm or left atrial pacing. After assessment of perimetric distribution and activation sequence of PV potentials, ostial ablation was performed at segments showing earliest activation, with the end point of PV disconnection. A total of 162 PVs (excluding right inferior PVs) were ablated. PV potentials were present at 60% to 88% of their perimeter, but PV muscle activation was always sequential from a segment with earliest activation (breakthrough). Radiofrequency (RF) application at this breakthrough eliminated all PV potentials in 34 PVs, whereas a secondary breakthrough required RF applications at separate segments in 77; in others, >2 segments were ablated. A median of 5, 6, and 4 bipoles from the circular catheter were targeted in the right superior, left superior, and inferior PVs, respectively, to achieve PV disconnection. Early recurrence of arrhythmia was observed in 31 patients as a result of new venous or atrial foci or recovery of previously targeted PVs, most related to a single recovered breakthrough that was reablated with local RF application. Although PV muscle covers a large extent of the PV perimeter, there are specific breakthroughs from the left atrium that allow ostial PV disconnection by use of partial perimetric ablation.Circulation 11/2000; 102(20):2463-5. · 15.20 Impact Factor