Preinjury Warfarin Worsens Outcome in Elderly Patients Who Fall From Standing
ABSTRACT Fall from standing (FFS) has become one of the most common mechanisms of injury for admission to the trauma center in the elderly population. Many of these patients present anticoagulated with warfarin. This two-center study was designed to examine the effects of preinjury warfarin use on outcome in the elderly.
A retrospective review of prospectively collected registry data at two Level I trauma centers was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The study population included patients age > or = 65 admitted to the trauma center after an FFS. These centers are relatively close geographically and have similar patient demographics. Data collected included: age, Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) for head, mortality, admission Glasgow Coma Score, and admission international normalized ratio (INR). Patients were divided into two groups based on the preinjury condition of warfarin use. Statistical differences were determined by unpaired t test for continuous variables and chi and odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous variables.
Of the 27,812 patients admitted to these two trauma centers over this time period, 2,791 (10.0%) were of age > or = 65 and admitted after an FFS. INR was 2.8 +/- 1.1 in warfarin group (+warf). The number of patients with AIS head 4 and 5 was similar between groups (-warf 22.1%, +warf 25.9%). Overall, preinjury warfarin use had a negative effect on the in-hospital mortality rate, +warf 8.6% and -warf 5.7% (OR 1.54, 1.09-2.19, p = 0.015). There was no difference in mortality between groups in patients with an AIS head < 4. The negative impact of preinjury warfarin use on mortality was most pronounced in patients with an AIS head 4 and 5 who presented awake (Glasgow Coma Score 14 and 15), +warf 13.5% and -warf 6.4% (OR 2.30, 95% confidence interval 1.12-4.70, p = 0.019).
Preinjury warfarin use has an adverse effect on outcome (mortality) in elderly FFS patients. Importantly, this effect is most prominent in patients admitted awake with significant findings on computed tomography scan. This argues for rapid emergency department triage to computed tomography scan and rapid INR correction in this population.
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ABSTRACT: Background Elderly Americans are at increased risk of head trauma, particularly fall-related. The effect of warfarin on head trauma outcomes remains controversial. Methods Medicare beneficiaries with head injuries from 2009-2011 were identified by ICD-9 code. Pre-injury warfarin use was determined using Part D claims. Multiple logistic regression models determined the association of pre-injury warfarin on need for hospitalization, ICU care, and occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Association between warfarin and in-hospital mortality was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Results Of 11,078 head injured patients, 5.2% were injured while on warfarin. Pre-injury warfarin increased the odds of ICH by 40% and doubled the risk of 30-day in-hospital mortality after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Conclusions Warfarin at the time of head injury increases the risk of adverse outcomes in Medicare beneficiaries with head injuries Caution should be used when initiating anticoagulation in elderly Americans at risk for trauma.The American Journal of Surgery 10/2014; 208(4). DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.05.019 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anticoagulants and prescription antiplatelet (ACAP) agents widely used by older adults have the potential to adversely affect traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. We hypothesized that TBI patients on preinjury ACAP agents would have worse outcomes than non-ACAP patients. This was a 5.5-year retrospective review of patients 55 years and older admitted to a Level I trauma center with blunt force TBI. Patients were categorized as ACAP (warfarin, clopidogrel, dipyridamole/aspirin, enoxaparin, subcutaneous heparin, or multiple agents) or non-ACAP. ACAP patients were further stratified by class of agent (anticoagulant or antiplatelet). Initial and subsequent head computerized tomographic results were examined for type and progression of TBI. Patient preadmission living status and discharge destination were identified. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were progression of initial TBI, development of new intracranial hemorrhage (remote from initial), and the need for an increased level of care at discharge. A total of 353 patients met inclusion criteria: 273 non-ACAP (77%) and 80 ACAP (23%). Upon exclusion of three patients taking a combination of agents, 350 were available for advanced analyses. ACAP status was significantly related to in-hospital mortality. After adjustment for patient and injury characteristics, anticoagulant users were more likely than non-ACAP patients to show progression of initial hemorrhage and develop a new hemorrhagic focus. However, compared with non-ACAP users, antiplatelet users were more likely to die in the hospital. Among survivors to discharge, anticoagulant users were more likely to be discharged to a care facility, but this finding was not robust to adjustment. Older TBI patients on preinjury ACAP agents experience a comparatively higher rate of inpatient mortality and other adverse outcomes caused by the effects of antiplatelet agents. Our findings should inform decision making regarding prognosis and caution against grouping anticoagulant and antiplatelet users together in considering outcomes. Therapeutic study, level IV.02/2014; 76(2):431-6. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000107
05/2012; 2(3). DOI:10.1007/s13341-012-0202-4