Luteolin inhibits invasion of prostate cancer PC3 cells through E-cadherin.
ABSTRACT Luteolin, a common dietary flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and therefore poses special interest for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic agent for cancers. E-cadherin, a marker of epithelial cells, mediates cell-cell adhesion. Decreased expression of E-cadherin results in a loss of cell-cell adhesion and an increased cell invasion. Many studies have shown the antiproliferative activities of luteolin on cancer cells. However, the effects of luteolin on invasion of cancer cells remain unclear. In this article, we show that luteolin inhibits invasion of prostate cancer PC3 cells through E-cadherin. We found that Luteolin induced expression of E-cadherin through mdm2. Overexpression of mdm2 or knockdown of E-cadherin could restore invasion of PC3 cells after luteolin treatment. Luteolin inhibits mdm2 through AKT and overexpression of active AKT attenuated luteolin-induced expression of E-cadherin, suggesting that luteolin regulates E-cadherin through AKT/mdm2 pathway. The in vivo experiments showed that luteolin inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis of PC3 cells implanted onto the nude mice. These findings provide a new sight into the mechanisms that luteolin is against cancer cells, and suggest that molecular targeting of E-cadherin by luteolin may be a useful strategy for treatment of invasive prostate cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a common flavonoid in many types of plants and has several beneficial biological effects, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties. However, the detail mechanisms of luteolin in suppressing tumor invasion and metastasis are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of luteolin on suppressing glioblastoma tumor cell invasion and migration activity. Under the non-cytotoxic doses (15 and 30 μM), luteolin exhibited an inhibitory effect on migration and invasion in U-87 MG and T98G glioblastoma cells. Additionally, filopodia assembly in U-87 MG cells was markedly suppressed after luteolin treatment. The treatment of luteolin also showed a decrease of Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) protein levels and reduced PI3K/AKT activation, whereas there was no association between this decrease and phosphorylated ERK or altered transcription levels of Cdc42. Over expression of constitutive Cdc42 (Q61L) using transient transfection in U-87 MG cells induced a partial cell migration, but did not affected the degradation of the protein levels of Cdc42 after luteolin treatment. Moreover, inhibition of the proteaosome pathway by MG132 caused a significant recovery in the migration ability of U-87 MG cells and augmented the Cdc42 protein levels after luteolin treatment, suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of migration via luteolin treatment is likely to preferentially facilitate the protein degradation of Cdc42. Taken together, the study demonstrated that flavonoids of luteolin prevent the migration of glioblastoma cells by affecting PI3K/AKT activation, modulating the protein expression of Cdc42 and facilitating their degradation via the proteaosome pathway.Molecular Biology Reports 05/2013; · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Luteolin is a flavonoid that has been identified in many plant tissues and exhibits chemopreventive or chemosensitising properties against human breast cancer. However, the oncogenic molecules in human breast cancer cells that are inhibited by luteolin treatment have not been identified. This study found that the level of cyclin E2 (CCNE2) mRNA was higher in tumour cells (4.89-fold, (∗)P=0.005) than in normal paired tissue samples as assessed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis (n=257). Further, relatively high levels of CCNE2 protein expression were detected in tamoxifen-resistant (TAM-R) MCF-7 cells. These results showed that the level of CCNE2 protein expression was specifically inhibited in luteolin-treated (5μM) TAM-R cells, either in the presence or absence of 4-OH-TAM (100nM). Combined treatment with 4-OH-TAM and luteolin synergistically sensitised the TAM-R cells to 4-OH-TAM. The results of this study suggest that luteolin can be used as a chemosensitiser to target the expression level of CCNE2 and that it could be a novel strategy to overcome TAM resistance in breast cancer patients.Food Chemistry 11/2013; 141(2):1553-61. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Luteolin (Lu) is one of the flavonoids with anticancer activity, but its poor water solubility limits its use clinically. In this work, we used monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(e-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles to encapsulate Lu by a self-assembly method, creating a water-soluble Lu/MPEG-PCL micelle. These micelles had a mean particle size of 38.6 ± 0.6 nm (polydispersity index = 0.16 ± 0.02), encapsulation efficiency of 98.32% ± 1.12%, and drug loading of 3.93% ± 0.25%. Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles could slowly release Lu in vitro. Encapsulation of Lu in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the half-life (t½ ; 152.25 ± 49.92 versus [vs] 7.16 ± 1.23 minutes, P = 0.007), area under the curve (0-t) (2914.05 ± 445.17 vs 502.65 ± 140.12 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001), area under the curve (0-∞) (2989.03 ± 433.22 vs 503.81 ± 141.41 mg/L/minute, P = 0.001), and peak concentration (92.70 ± 11.61 vs 38.98 ± 7.73 mg/L, P = 0.003) of Lu when the drug was intravenously administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg in rats. Also, Lu/MPEG-PCL micelles maintained the cytotoxicity of Lu on 4T1 breast cancer cells (IC50 = 6.4 ± 2.30 μg/mL) and C-26 colon carcinoma cells (IC50 = 12.62 ± 2.17 μg/mL) in vitro. These data suggested that encapsulation of Lu into MPEG-PCL micelles created an aqueous formulation of Lu with potential anticancer effect.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2013; 8:3061-9. · 4.20 Impact Factor