Luteolin inhibits invasion of prostate cancer PC3 cells through E-cadherin.
ABSTRACT Luteolin, a common dietary flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and therefore poses special interest for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic agent for cancers. E-cadherin, a marker of epithelial cells, mediates cell-cell adhesion. Decreased expression of E-cadherin results in a loss of cell-cell adhesion and an increased cell invasion. Many studies have shown the antiproliferative activities of luteolin on cancer cells. However, the effects of luteolin on invasion of cancer cells remain unclear. In this article, we show that luteolin inhibits invasion of prostate cancer PC3 cells through E-cadherin. We found that Luteolin induced expression of E-cadherin through mdm2. Overexpression of mdm2 or knockdown of E-cadherin could restore invasion of PC3 cells after luteolin treatment. Luteolin inhibits mdm2 through AKT and overexpression of active AKT attenuated luteolin-induced expression of E-cadherin, suggesting that luteolin regulates E-cadherin through AKT/mdm2 pathway. The in vivo experiments showed that luteolin inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis of PC3 cells implanted onto the nude mice. These findings provide a new sight into the mechanisms that luteolin is against cancer cells, and suggest that molecular targeting of E-cadherin by luteolin may be a useful strategy for treatment of invasive prostate cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. There is a major need for less toxic but yet effective therapies to treat prostate cancer. Pomegranate fruit from the tree Punica granatum has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes and is described as "nature's power fruit". Recent research has shown that pomegranate juice (PJ) and/or pomegranate extracts (PE) significantly inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells in culture. In preclinical murine models, PJ and/or PE inhibit growth and angiogenesis of prostate tumors. More recently, we have shown that three components of PJ, luteolin, ellagic acid and punicic acid together, have similar inhibitory effects on prostate cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Results from clinical trials are also promising. PJ and/or PE significantly prolonged the prostate specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. In this review we discuss data on the effects of PJ and PE on prostate cancer. We also discuss the effects of specific components of the pomegranate fruit and how they have been used to study the mechanisms involved in prostate cancer progression and their potential to be used in deterring prostate cancer metastasis.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 09/2014; 15(9):14949-14966. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Solar ultraviolet (SUV) irradiation is a major factor in skin carcinogenesis, the most common form of cancer in the USA. The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are activated by SUV irradiation. The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) and mitogen and stress activated protein kinase (MSK) proteins constitute a family of protein kinases that mediate signal transduction downstream of the MAP kinase cascades. In this study, phosphorylation of RSK and MSK1 was up-regulated in human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and solar UV-treated mouse skin. Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, found in tea, broccoli, grapes, apples and other plant sources, is known to have anticancer activity, but its mechanisms and direct target(s) in cancer chemoprevention are unclear. Kinase array results revealed that kaempferol inhibited RSK2 and MSK1. Pull-down assay results, ATP competition and in vitro kinase assay data revealed that kaempferol interacts with RSK2 and MSK1 at the ATP-binding pocket and inhibits their respective kinase activities. Mechanistic investigations showed that kaempferol suppresses RSK2 and MSK1 kinase activities to attenuate solar UV-induced phosphorylation of CREB and histone H3 in mouse skin cells. Kaempferol was a potent inhibitor of solar UV-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis showed that skin from the kaempferol-treated group exhibited a substantial reduction in solar UV-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), c-Fos and histone H3. Overall, our results identify kaempferol as a safe and novel chemopreventive agent against solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis that acts by targeting RSK2 and MSK1.Cancer Prevention Research 07/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Aberrated activation of cMet in gastric cancer contributes to tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. cMet-overexpressing gastric cancer has a poor prognosis because of high tumor metastasis and limited therapeutic options. Luteolin is a common dietary flavonoid with antitumor properties. However, the antitumor effect of luteolin on cMet-overexpressing gastric cancer remain unclear.Methods Two cMet-overexpressing patient-derived human tumor xenograft (PDTX) models of gastric cancer were established, and treated with luteolin or vehicle to evaluate the antitumor effects of luteolin. Tumor specimens were subjected to H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. MKN45 and SGC7901 cells that show high cMet expression were treated with varying concentrations of luteolin and evaluated by western blot, cell viability, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assays.ResultsLuteolin inhibited the tumor growth in cMet-overexpressing PDTX models. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that expression of cMet, MMP9 and Ki-67 were significantly down-regulated. Luteolin inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis and reduced the invasiveness of MKN45 and SGC7901 cells. Western blot revealed that luteolin promoted the activation of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3 and PARP-1, and down-regulated the invasion-associated protein, MMP9. Further studies demonstrated that luteolin decreased the expression and phosphorylation of cMet, and downstream phosphorylation of Akt and ERK. In addition, luteolin down-regulated phosphorylated Akt independently of cMet. Blocking Akt and/or ERK with the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, or the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, induced down-regulation of MMP9 and up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP-1, resembling the effects of luteolin.Conclusions Our findings ,for the first time, demonstrate that luteolin exerts marked antitumor effects in cMet-overexpressing PDTX models of gastric cancer, through a mechanism likely involving cMet/Akt/ERK signaling. These findings indicate that luteolin may act as a potential therapeutic option for cMet-overexpressing gastric cancer.Journal of translational medicine. 02/2015; 13(1):42.