Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation modulates pancreatitis-associated gene expression but does not modify the susceptibility to experimental pancreatitis in mice.

Department of Medicine, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 7.9). 07/2009; 58(9):2148-61. DOI: 10.2337/db09-0626
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical reports link use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exenatide and liraglutide to pancreatitis. However, whether these agents act on the exocrine pancreas is poorly understood.
We assessed whether the antidiabetic agents exendin (Ex)-4, liraglutide, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin, or the biguanide metformin were associated with changes in expression of genes associated with the development of experimental pancreatitis. The effects of Ex-4 when administered before or after the initiation of caerulein-induced experimental pancreatitis were determined. The importance of endogenous GLP-1R signaling for gene expression in the exocrine pancreas and the severity of pancreatitis was assessed in Glp1r(-/-) mice.
Acute administration of Ex-4 increased expression of egr-1 and c-fos in the exocrine pancreas. Administration of Ex-4 or liraglutide for 1 week increased pancreas weight and induced expression of mRNA transcripts encoding the anti-inflammatory proteins pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) (RegIIIbeta) and RegIIIalpha. Chronic Ex-4 treatment of high-fat-fed mice increased expression of PAP and reduced pancreatic expression of mRNA transcripts encoding for the proinflammatory monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Sitagliptin and metformin did not significantly change pancreatic gene expression profiles. Ex-4 administered before or after caerulein did not modify the severity of experimental pancreatitis, and levels of pancreatic edema and serum amylase were comparable in caerulein-treated Glp1r(-/-) versus Glp1r(+/+) mice.
These findings demonstrate that GLP-1 receptor activation increases pancreatic mass and selectively modulates the expression of genes associated with pancreatitis. However, activation or genetic elimination of GLP-1R signaling does not modify the severity of experimental pancreatitis in mice.

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    Diabetologia 07/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exendin-4 is a 39 amino acid agonist of the glucagon-like peptide receptor and has been approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Many reports describe an increased incidence of acute pancreatitis in humans treated with exendin-4 (exenatide). Previous studies have evaluated the effect of exendin-4 on beta cells and beta cell function. We evaluated the histological and biochemical effects of exendin-4 on the pancreas in rats. We studied 20 Sprague-Dawley male rats, ten of which were treated with exendin-4 and ten of which were used as controls. The study period was 75 days. Serum and pancreatic tissue were removed for biochemical and histological study. Blood glucose, amylase, lipase, insulin and adipocytokines were compared between the two groups. Animals treated with exendin-4 had more pancreatic acinar inflammation, more pyknotic nuclei and weighed significantly less than control rats. They also had higher serum lipase than control animals. Exendin-4 treatment was associated with lower insulin and leptin levels as well as lower HOMA values than in the untreated control group. Although the use of exendin-4 in rats is associated with decreased weight gain, lower insulin resistance and lower leptin levels than in control animals, extended use of exendin-4 in rats leads to pancreatic acinar inflammation and pyknosis. This raises important concerns about the likelihood of inducing acute pancreatitis in humans receiving incretin mimetic therapy.
    Diabetologia 09/2009; 53(1):153-9. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of developing pancreatitis is elevated in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Cases of pancreatitis have been reported in type 2 diabetes patients treated with GLP-1 (GLP-1R) receptor agonists. To examine whether the GLP-1R agonist exenatide potentially induces or modulates pancreatitis, the effect of exenatide was evaluated in normal or diabetic rodents. Normal and diabetic rats received a single exenatide dose (0.072, 0.24, and 0.72 nmol/kg) or vehicle. Diabetic ob/ob or HF-STZ mice were infused with exenatide (1.2 and 7.2 nmol·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle for 4 wk. Post-exenatide treatment, pancreatitis was induced with caerulein (CRN) or sodium taurocholate (ST), and changes in plasma amylase and lipase were measured. In ob/ob mice, plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, MCP-1, IFNγ, and TNFα) and pancreatitis-associated genes were assessed. Pancreata were weighed and examined histologically. Exenatide treatment alone did not modify plasma amylase or lipase in any models tested. Exenatide attenuated CRN-induced release of amylase and lipase in normal rats and ob/ob mice but did not modify the response to ST infusion. Plasma cytokines and pancreatic weight were unaffected by exenatide. Exenatide upregulated Reg3b but not Il6, Ccl2, Nfkb1, or Vamp8 expression. Histological analysis revealed that the highest doses of exenatide decreased CRN- or ST-induced acute inflammation, vacuolation, and acinar single cell necrosis in mice and rats, respectively. Ductal cell proliferation rates were low and similar across all groups of ob/ob mice. In conclusion, exenatide did not modify plasma amylase and lipase concentrations in rodents without pancreatitis and improved chemically induced pancreatitis in normal and diabetic rodents.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2010; 299(6):E1076-86. · 4.51 Impact Factor

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