Microtubules to form memory.
ABSTRACT Microtunbule-depolymerizing agents cause amnesia. Some signal translocations to the stimulated postsynaptic membrane are essential for inducing LTP in CA1 neurons like AMPA receptors, CaMKII and mRNA. On the other hand, LTP requires protein synthesis and gene expression. This indicates that signals generated at the synapse might be transmitted to the nucleus. Recently, we have reported that LTP-producing stimulation makes new microtubule track between cell body and the stimulated postsynaptic membrane in CA1 neurons. This newly produced microtubule track only to the stimulated postsynaptic membrane might be the route of these bi-directional transportation of signals during LTP formation. This lead us the hypothesis of the "endless memory amplifying circuit" that means gene expression-promoting molecules are translocated from postsynaptic membrane to the cell body and enter into nucleus and activate transcription factors, and gene products, which will probably promote plasticity, may be re-translocated only to the stimulated postsynaptic membrane along microtubules.
- SourceAvailable from: Shizuko Nagao[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There are many microtubules in axons and dendritic shafts, but it has been thought that there were fewer microtubules in spines. Recently, there have been four reports that observed the intraspinal microtubules. Because microtubules originate from the centrosome, these four reports strongly suggest a stimulation-dependent connection between the nucleus and the stimulated postsynaptic membrane by microtubules. In contrast, several pieces of evidence suggest that spine elongation may be caused by the polymerization of intraspinal microtubules. This structural mechanism for spine elongation suggests, conversely, that the synapse loss or spine loss observed in Alzheimer's disease may be caused by the depolymerization of intraspinal microtubules. Based on this evidence, it is suggested that the impairment of intraspinal microtubules may cause spinal structural change and block the translocation of plasticity-related molecules between the stimulated postsynaptic membranes and the nucleus, resulting in the cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease.International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2012; 2012:519682.