Monitoring results for organochlorine pesticides in soil and water from selected obsolete pesticide stores in Pakistan.
ABSTRACT This study reports on the concentration and distribution pattern of organochlorine pesticides in soil and water samples collected from obsolete pesticide stores in three provinces of Pakistan and analyzed on capillary gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The data for soil and water samples were highly variable as samplings were done from diversified locations. The soil samples mainly contained DDTs followed by lindane and heptachlor. The contamination levels in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, and Sindh were in ranges of 247-9,157 mg kg(-1), 214-10,892 mg kg(-1), and 86-1,139 mg kg(-1), respectively. In water, residue range levels were 0-15.17 (median 0.29) microg L(-1), 0.25-0.78 (median 0.36) microg L(-1), and 0.11-0.83 (median 0.21) microg L(-1) in NWFP, Punjab, and Sindh, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the screening level risk assessment of OCPs in rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw (n=20) and rice grains (n=20), samples were collected from different districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs' levels (ngg(-1)) in rice straw and grains ranged from 3.63 to 39.40, 2.72 to 49.89, respectively. DDTs were found predominant over the other detected OCP isomers followed by HCH and heptachlor. Results of one way ANOVA reflected no significant difference for OCPs' levels among sampling sites, except heptachlor for rice grains. ∑OCPs' concentration in rice straw samples was exceeding the minimal residual levels (MRLs) (Australian and Japanese). Results of dietary intake and risk assessment suggested that rice straw is not safe for animals to consume as fodder. Human health was suggested to have some carcinogenic risks by consumption of rice grains, however, no considerable hazardous risk (non-carcinogenic) to human health was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Science of The Total Environment 12/2014; 511C:354-361. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.030 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Residue levels, distribution patterns and ecological risk assessment of OCPs in water and sediment samples collected from two upstream feeding tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan were monitored. ΣOCPs levels in water and sediment ranged between 8 and 76 ng L(-1) and 17 and 224 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of ΣHCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) was 3.3 ± 3.2 ng L(-1) and 8.4 ± 9 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively, while ΣDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exhibited the average concentration of 9.07 ± 6.15 ng L(-1) and 40.3 ± 26.2 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively. The concentration of DDT and HCHs in both water and sediment samples were about 80 % of total OCPs and DDTs were the predominant organochlorines in the investigated matrix. DDTs and HCHs in sediment samples posed higher ecotoxicological risk and results were significant when compared with the quality guidelines. Results of the present study should be taken seriously by higher authorities as there is a serious threat to ecological integrities by OCPs exposure.Ecotoxicology 09/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1007/s10646-014-1332-5 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination and their probable hazardous effects on human health; cereal crops (wheat and rice; n=28) agricultural soil (n=28) and air (n=6) samples were collected from Gujranwala division, Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs concentration ranged between 123 to 635 pg m(-3), 31 to 365 ng g(-1)(dw), 2.72 to 36.6 ng g(-1)(dw), 0.55 to 15.2 ng g(-1)(dw) for air, soil, rice and wheat samples, respectively. DDTs were the predominant over other OCPSs detected from screened samples while the source apportionment analysis suggested the new inputs of DDTs in the study area. EDI (estimated daily intake) of ∑OCPs through rice and wheat was found 39 and 40 ng kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) on the basis 95(th) percentile concentrations were exceeding the integrity for most of the investigated OCP in rice and wheat. The results revealed that there is a severe risk to the human population of the study area through consumption of contaminated cereal crops.Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.008 · 2.90 Impact Factor