This study reports on the concentration and distribution pattern of organochlorine pesticides in soil and water samples collected from obsolete pesticide stores in three provinces of Pakistan and analyzed on capillary gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The data for soil and water samples were highly variable as samplings were done from diversified locations. The soil samples mainly contained DDTs followed by lindane and heptachlor. The contamination levels in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, and Sindh were in ranges of 247-9,157 mg kg(-1), 214-10,892 mg kg(-1), and 86-1,139 mg kg(-1), respectively. In water, residue range levels were 0-15.17 (median 0.29) microg L(-1), 0.25-0.78 (median 0.36) microg L(-1), and 0.11-0.83 (median 0.21) microg L(-1) in NWFP, Punjab, and Sindh, respectively.
"Pakistan has signed a number of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) including Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Unfortunately, no legal framework for application and proper discarding of banned pesticide exists in Pakistan (Ahad et al., 2010; Malik et al., 2011; Mahmood and Malik, 2014) and stockpiles of outdated pesticides exist in urban areas along with the manufacturing units (Syed and Malik, 2011; Mahmood et al, 2014d). They have been practiced without any awareness of using personal protective equipment, lack of safety standards, and unavailability of washing amenities and pesticide bottles are also not properly labeled (Feola and Binder, 2010; Lesmes-Fabian et al., 2012). "
"Mid-stream zone is located in Sialkot city that it is an industrial area and one obsolete pesticide dumping site is located in Simbrial (Ahad et al. 2010) about 15–20 km far from these sites. Furthermore, site 2, 3, 4 and 14 also exhibited higher OCPs contamination load and these sites are also in vicinity of Wazirabad obsolete pesticide dumping sites (Ahad et al. 2010). Downstream was located in the peri-urban and industrial area of study area. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Residue levels, distribution patterns and ecological risk assessment of OCPs in water and sediment samples collected from two upstream feeding tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan were monitored. ΣOCPs levels in water and sediment ranged between 8 and 76 ng L(-1) and 17 and 224 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of ΣHCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) was 3.3 ± 3.2 ng L(-1) and 8.4 ± 9 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively, while ΣDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exhibited the average concentration of 9.07 ± 6.15 ng L(-1) and 40.3 ± 26.2 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively. The concentration of DDT and HCHs in both water and sediment samples were about 80 % of total OCPs and DDTs were the predominant organochlorines in the investigated matrix. DDTs and HCHs in sediment samples posed higher ecotoxicological risk and results were significant when compared with the quality guidelines. Results of the present study should be taken seriously by higher authorities as there is a serious threat to ecological integrities by OCPs exposure.
"industrial area ; including chemical fac - tories , pigment and paint industries and many other industrial plants . One obsolete pesticide dumping site is also located in this zone at Simbrial ( Ahad et al . , 2010 ) . Down - stream zone is peri - urban and industrial area containing one obsolete pesticide dumping site situated at Wazirabad City ( Ahad et al . , 2010 ) . OCP"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination and their probable hazardous effects on human health; cereal crops (wheat and rice; n=28) agricultural soil (n=28) and air (n=6) samples were collected from Gujranwala division, Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs concentration ranged between 123 to 635 pg m(-3), 31 to 365 ng g(-1)(dw), 2.72 to 36.6 ng g(-1)(dw), 0.55 to 15.2 ng g(-1)(dw) for air, soil, rice and wheat samples, respectively. DDTs were the predominant over other OCPSs detected from screened samples while the source apportionment analysis suggested the new inputs of DDTs in the study area. EDI (estimated daily intake) of ∑OCPs through rice and wheat was found 39 and 40 ng kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) on the basis 95(th) percentile concentrations were exceeding the integrity for most of the investigated OCP in rice and wheat. The results revealed that there is a severe risk to the human population of the study area through consumption of contaminated cereal crops.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 06/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.008 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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