Monitoring results for organochlorine pesticides in soil and water from selected obsolete pesticide stores in Pakistan.
ABSTRACT This study reports on the concentration and distribution pattern of organochlorine pesticides in soil and water samples collected from obsolete pesticide stores in three provinces of Pakistan and analyzed on capillary gas chromatography/electron capture detection. The data for soil and water samples were highly variable as samplings were done from diversified locations. The soil samples mainly contained DDTs followed by lindane and heptachlor. The contamination levels in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab, and Sindh were in ranges of 247-9,157 mg kg(-1), 214-10,892 mg kg(-1), and 86-1,139 mg kg(-1), respectively. In water, residue range levels were 0-15.17 (median 0.29) microg L(-1), 0.25-0.78 (median 0.36) microg L(-1), and 0.11-0.83 (median 0.21) microg L(-1) in NWFP, Punjab, and Sindh, respectively.
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ABSTRACT: This review is undertaken to address the possible role of arsenic and pesticides in the prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan and to highlight a resourceful targeted research in this area. A bibliographic search of scientific databases was conducted with key words of "epidemics of diabetes in Pakistan", "diabetes in Asia", "diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants", "diabetes mellitus and heavy metals", "diabetes mellitus and pesticides", "prevalence of pesticides in Pakistan", and "heavy metals contamination of drinking water, "vegetables and fruits in Pakistan". More than 200 articles were examined. Studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), pesticides and heavy metal contamination of drinking water, fruits and vegetables were included in the study. According to WHO 2011 report, about 12.9 million people are suffering from DM and the number is constantly increasing. Water pollution is a major public health threat in Pakistan. Most of the people in Pakistan are exposed to arsenic and pesticides either in drinking water or through vegetables, fruits, and other edible items with various concentrations above the WHO/FAO permissible limits. Being an agricultural country, a 1169% increase has been recorded with the use of different types of pesticides since last two decades, and almost similar rise in the burden of diabetes. There is a growing global concern of arsenic and pesticides exposure with the incidence of DM. Besides other factors, the environmental attributors in the incidence of DM in Pakistan have not been conclusively elucidated yet which in turn deserve a resourceful targeted research.12/2014; 13(1):117. DOI:10.1186/s40200-014-0117-y
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ABSTRACT: Residue levels, distribution patterns and ecological risk assessment of OCPs in water and sediment samples collected from two upstream feeding tributaries of the River Chenab, Pakistan were monitored. ΣOCPs levels in water and sediment ranged between 8 and 76 ng L(-1) and 17 and 224 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of ΣHCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) was 3.3 ± 3.2 ng L(-1) and 8.4 ± 9 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively, while ΣDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) exhibited the average concentration of 9.07 ± 6.15 ng L(-1) and 40.3 ± 26.2 ng g(-1) for water and sediment samples, respectively. The concentration of DDT and HCHs in both water and sediment samples were about 80 % of total OCPs and DDTs were the predominant organochlorines in the investigated matrix. DDTs and HCHs in sediment samples posed higher ecotoxicological risk and results were significant when compared with the quality guidelines. Results of the present study should be taken seriously by higher authorities as there is a serious threat to ecological integrities by OCPs exposure.Ecotoxicology 09/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1007/s10646-014-1332-5 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the screening level risk assessment of OCPs in rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw (n=20) and rice grains (n=20), samples were collected from different districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. ∑OCPs' levels (ngg(-1)) in rice straw and grains ranged from 3.63 to 39.40, 2.72 to 49.89, respectively. DDTs were found predominant over the other detected OCP isomers followed by HCH and heptachlor. Results of one way ANOVA reflected no significant difference for OCPs' levels among sampling sites, except heptachlor for rice grains. ∑OCPs' concentration in rice straw samples was exceeding the minimal residual levels (MRLs) (Australian and Japanese). Results of dietary intake and risk assessment suggested that rice straw is not safe for animals to consume as fodder. Human health was suggested to have some carcinogenic risks by consumption of rice grains, however, no considerable hazardous risk (non-carcinogenic) to human health was found. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Science of The Total Environment 12/2014; 511C:354-361. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.030 · 3.16 Impact Factor