Semi-volatile organic compounds and trace elements in the Yangtze River source of drinking water.
ABSTRACT Determination of 24 semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and 24 trace elements in water samples was conducted in order to investigate the quality of the Nanjing source of drinking water taken from Yangtze River. The total concentrations of SVOCs and trace elements were in the range of 1,951-11,098 ng/l and 51,274-72,384 microg/l, respectively. No significant seasonal changes were found for the pollutants' concentrations. A primary health risk assessment was carried out to evaluate potential health effects. Risk quotients involving carcinogenic effects for benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and arsenic were >1 under the worst-case scenario. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of further studies on the environmental health effects of exposure to the source water.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It took over two decades to achieve the removal of leaded gasoline in this country. This was despite international evidence and original research conducted in New Zealand on the harm to child cognitive function and behaviour from lead exposure. To identify lessons from the New Zealand experience of removing leaded gasoline that are potentially relevant to the control of other environmental pollutants. From the available documentation, we suggest a number of reasons for the slow policy response to the leaded gasoline hazard. These include: (1) industry power in the form of successful lobbying by the lead additive supplier, Associated Octel; (2) the absence of the precautionary principle as part of risk management policy; and (3) weak policymaking machinery that included: (a) the poor use of health research evidence (from both NZ and internationally), as well as limited use of expertise in academic and non-governmental organisations; (b) lack of personnel competent in addressing technically complex issues; and (c) diffusion of responsibility among government agencies. There is a need for a stronger precautionary approach by policymakers when considering environmental pollutants. Politicians, officials and health workers need to strengthen policymaking processes and effectively counter the industry tactics used to delay regulatory responses.Environmental Health 02/2008; 7:1. · 2.71 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a sediment core taken from intertidal flat in the Yangtze Estuary were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the total concentration of PAHs ranged from 0.08 to 11.74 microg/g. The concentration levels of total and individual PAHs changed dramatically with depth. The concentrations of PAHs were relatively high above 35 cm depth and remained constantly low below this depth. The historical record of PAHs in the core shows subsurface maximum (one or more peak values), followed by decreased levels to the surface and with depth. And, PAH sediment record in the core profile is in agreement with historically sewage discharge events during the 1980s to 1990s. The distribution of target molecule acenephthene, the fluoranthene/pyrene ratio, the proportion of 2-3-ring and 4-5-ring PAHs, and alkylated naphthalene to parent naphthalene in the core profile show that the sources in this area are characterized by petroleum-derived PAH contamination (mainly sewage discharge and the river runoff) and the incorporation of atmospheric inputs. Studies indicate the PAH profile pattern in this site in comparison with other regions appear to reflect its particular local position (near the sewage outlet). Moreover, physico-chemical conditions and sedimentation rate as well as biodegradation also affect the PAH concentration levels in the core sediments.Environmental Pollution 12/2000; 110(2):357-65. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Persistent organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic effects. In this work the levels of 16 priority PAHs were determined in water, pore water, sediment, soil and vegetable samples from Minjiang River Estuary, China. Total PAH concentrations varied from 9.9 to 474 microg/l in water, 82.1 to 239 microg/l in pore water, 112 to 877 ng/g dry wt. in surficial sediments, 128 to 465 ng/g dry wt. in soil and 8600 to 111,000 ng/g dry wt. in Chinese vegetables. Overall, the mean concentrations of PAHs were present in higher levels in pore water than that in surface water, due possibly to higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon or colloids with which the hydrophobic pollutants were strongly associated. Such a concentration gradient implies a potential flux of pollutants from sediment pore water to overlying water. Contamination was dominated by high molecular mass PAH compounds in all samples, indicating combustion-derived sources (for example, pyrolysis at high temperature). The levels of PAHs in water and vegetable were relatively high in comparison to other studies, although PAHs in sediment and soil were comparable to those found in many other similar environments. The ratios of selected PAHs indicated again that PAHs in Minjiang River Estuary were mainly derived from incomplete combustion of fossil fuel.Science of The Total Environment 06/2004; 323(1-3):71-86. · 3.26 Impact Factor