The Coagulation and Protein C Pathways in Patients with Sleep Apnea
ABSTRACT Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and hypercoagulability is believed to be involved in the mechanism of those vascular events. We evaluated whether there is a dysfunction in the protein C anticoagulant pathway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Two hundred ninety-three patients were enrolled. To confirm the diagnosis of OSA, all-night polysomnography, including determination of SpO(2), was carried out. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was used for judging the presence of sleep-breathing disorder. The plasma levels of the thrombin-antithrombin complex were higher in patients with AHI > 5 than in those without OSA, defined as AHI < 5. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the plasma level of either activated protein C/alpha-antitrypsin complex or soluble thrombomodulin between patients with AHI > 5 and those with AHI < 5. The results of this study showed for the first time that markers of the protein C anticoagulant pathway are not affected in patients with OSA and that the protein C pathway is probably not involved in the mechanism of hypercoagulability in subjects with sleep-disordered breathing.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the diagnostic value of biological markers (exhaled breath condensate, blood, salivary and urinary) in the diagnosis of OSA in comparison to the gold standard of nocturnal PSG.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 10/2014; DOI:10.5664/jcsm.4358 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with systemic inflammation and a hypercoagulable state. The current study aim was to investigate whether mandibular advancement splint (MAS) therapy affects inflammatory and hemostatic parameters in patients with mild-to-moderate OSA. Twenty-two patients with mild-to-moderate OSA and 16 control subjects were studied. OSA subjects were treated with a titratable MAS for 6 months. Baseline plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10, interleukin-6, P-selectin, fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thrombin-antithrombin complex, activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa), 6-keto-PGF1α, glucose, and fibrin clot lysis time (CLT) were measured in all subjects. After 3 months of MAS therapy, measurements were repeated for the 22 patients, and after 6 months all measurements were repeated for all study subjects. MAS treatment reduced significantly AHI at 3 months (24 vs 13.1/h) and further improved it at 6 months (13.1 vs 7.05/h). Compared with controls, OSA subjects had a significant higher baseline mean levels of fibrinogen, TAFIa, 6-keto-PGF1α, and glucose. MAS treatment significantly improved levels of IL-1β, D-dimer, TAFIa, and CLT. Despite residual apneas, MAS treatment group presented similar measured homeostatic and inflammatory levels to controls except for glucose. Treatment with MAS in mild-to-moderate OSA subjects improves the inflammatory profile and homeostatic markers. Niżankowska-Jędrzejczyk A; Almeida FR; Lowe AA; Kania A; Nastałek P; Mejza F; Foley JH; Niżankowska-Mogilnicka E; Undas A. Modulation of inflammatory and hemostatic markers in obstructive sleep apnea patients treated with mandibular advancement splints: a parallel, controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):255-262.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(3):255-62. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3522 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine if bulldogs develop a hypercoagulable state comparable to that observed in human patients with sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome. Thromboelastography was performed in 15 clinically healthy bulldogs and 24 healthy control dogs of other breeds or mixed breed lineage. Bulldogs had significantly shorter R and K times relative to control dogs. The alpha angle, maximum amplitude and overall clot strength was significantly greater in bulldogs than in controls. The largest differences between the groups were found in the maximal amplitude and overall clot strength parameters. These findings support the concept that brachycephalic syndrome promotes a hypercoagulable phenotype similar to that observed with sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome in humans. The large increases in maximal amplitude observed suggest platelet hyperreactivity may play an important role. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.Journal of Small Animal Practice 12/2014; 56(2). DOI:10.1111/jsap.12299 · 0.91 Impact Factor