Median arcuate ligament syndrome: vascular surgical therapy and follow-up of 18 patients.
ABSTRACT The median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) or celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare vascular disorder caused by an extrinsic compression of the celiac artery from the median arcuate ligament, prominent fibrous bands, and ganglionic periaortic tissue. Clinical symptoms are postprandial abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, unintentional weight loss, and sometimes, abdominal pain during body exercise caused by an intermittent visceral ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operative management of patients with MALS in our institution, especially in consideration of various vascular reconstructive techniques.
Between June 2000 and January 2009, a total of 341 patients were treated in our department for vascular pathologies of the visceral arteries (225 chronic visceral ischaemia, 84 acute visceral ischaemia, and 14 visceral artery aneurysms). In a retrospective study of 18 patients with MALS, the records, clinical symptoms, diagnostic evaluation, and surgical procedures were compiled. This was completed by a reassessment for a follow-up.
A MALS was diagnosed in 15 female (83.3%) and three male (16.7%) patients. The mean patient age was 46.2 years (range 20-68 years). The diagnosis of MALS was based on a radiological analysis in all patients by a digitally subtracted angiogram, but duplex ultrasound was used lately more frequently to study the influence of respiration on the stenotic degree of the celiac trunk. All 18 patients were treated with open surgery in an elective situation. Due to the local and specific pathology of the celiac trunk with a fixed stricture or stenosis, out of 18 cases beside decompression, 11 (primary, seven; secondary, four patients) further procedures were performed on the celiac artery (aorto-celiac vein interposition n = 6, aorto-hepatic vein interposition n = 1, resection of the celiac artery and end-to-end anastomosis n = 2, patchplasty of the celiac artery with vein n = 1, and transaortic removal of a stent of the celiac artery n = 1) Follow-up was obtained in 15 patients (83.33%) with a mean duration after surgery of about three and a half years (40.68 months, range from 2 to 102 months). Eleven of the 15 patients (73.33%) were completely free of abdominal symptoms, and nine of them had gained between 3 and 10 kg in weight after surgery. The weight of two patients remained stable. Of the 11 patients with a successful outcome in the follow-up, six of them had undergone decompression solely. In the other five patients, vascular co-procedures on the celiac trunk had been performed.
The MALS is a rare vascular disorder caused by an extrinsic compression of the celiac artery and induces upper abdominal, mostly, postprandial pain. A definite diagnosis of MALS can be achieved by lateral aortography of the visceral aorta and its branches during inspiration and expiration. Open surgical therapy is a safe and reliable procedure with no mortality and low morbidity. As to the local and specific pathology of the celiac trunk after decompression with fixed stricture or stenosis, further vascular procedures are necessary. The long-time follow-up seemed adequate. The laparoscopic approach reduces the procedure of decompression only, something which seemed inadequate for most cases. Endovascular treatment with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and insertion of a stent does not solve the underlying problem of extrinsic compression of the celiac trunk and often requires open procedures during the long-term course. Due to the low incidence of MALS, no guidelines will do justice to all the patients sufficiently, and the choice of treatment must depend on the specific clinical situation for each patient.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is a rare condition characterized by postprandial abdominal pain, bowel function disorder and weight loss. We report the first case to our knowledge of Crohn's disease and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient was a 33 year-old female with a previous diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Acute postprandial abdominal pain affected the patient every day; she was, therefore, referred to US-Doppler and magnetic resonance angiography of the abdominal vessels and received a diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome. Consequently, the patient was surgically treated, releasing the vascular compression. After the operation, she reported a complete relief from postprandial pain which was one of her major concerns. Subocclusive symptoms occurred after six months due to the inflammatory reactivation of the terminal ileitis. DISCUSSION: The diagnosis of Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome is mainly based on the exclusion of other intestinal disorders but it should be always confirmed using noninvasive tests such as US-Doppler, angio-CT or magnetic resonance angiography. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates that the Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome could be the major cause of symptoms, even in presence of other abdominal disorders.International journal of surgery case reports. 01/2013; 4(4):399-402.
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ABSTRACT: We determined the prevalence of classical risk factors for atherosclerosis and mortality risk in patients with CGI. A case-control study was conducted. Patients referred with suspected CGI underwent a standard work-up including risk factors for atherosclerosis, radiological imaging of abdominal vessels and tonometry. Cases were patients with confirmed atherosclerotic CGI. Controls were healthy subjects previously not known with CGI. The mortality risk was calculated as standardized mortality ratio derived from observed mortality, and was estimated with ten-year risk of death using SCORE and PREDICT. Between 2006 and 2009, 195 patients were evaluated for suspected CGI. After a median follow-up of 19 months, atherosclerotic CGI was diagnosed in 68 patients. Controls consisted of 132 subjects. Female gender, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, a personal and family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and current smoking are highly associated with CGI. After adjustment, female gender (OR 2.14 95% CI 1.05-4.36), diabetes (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.95-16.01), current smoking (OR 5.78, 95% CI 2.27-14.72), and history of CVD (OR 21.61, 95% CI 8.40-55.55) remained significant. CGI patients >55 years had a higher median ten-year risk of death (15% vs. 5%, P = 0.001) compared to controls. During follow-up of 116 person-years, standardized mortality rate was higher in CGI patients (3.55; 95% CI 1.70-6.52). Patients with atherosclerotic CGI have an increased estimated CVD risk, and severe excess mortality. Secondary cardiovascular prevention therapy should be advocated in patients with CGI.Atherosclerosis 07/2012; 224(1):235-41. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Median arcuate ligament (MAL) malposition is a rare cause of celiac axis compression syndrome (CACS) or Dunbar syndrome. A 26-year-old female presented with severe postprandial epigastric pain, weight loss, heartburn and regurgitation unresponsive to medical therapy. CT angiography and duplex ultrasound demonstrated the MAL crossing anterior to the celiac artery (CA). Reconstructions demonstrated CA compression, while the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was normal. The MAL was laparoscopically divided, releasing the celiac axis. A concomitant Nissen fundoplication was performed. At 3-months follow-up, the CT-scan demonstrated no evidence of CACS with complete symptom resolution. Dunbar's syndrome can be treated with endovascular surgery, laparoscopic MAL division or vascular surgery.Six anatomical and morphologic variations of aortic and esophageal hiatus are described. The result of the analysis of these anatomical data leads to the conclusion that hiatus hernia, Dunbar's syndrome and GERD have a common etiopathogenesis and physiopathology. Laparoscopic treatment is useful and feasible in centers with experience in majorlaparoscopic surgery with reduced invasiveness, better cosmetic effect and shorter postoperative course.International journal of surgery case reports. 07/2013; 4(10):882-885.