Impact of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
ABSTRACT PURPOSE Use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus but the risk of both acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiovascular mortality remain controversial because few outcomes and conflicting findings have been reported. We sought to clarify whether ADT is associated with these outcomes in a large, representative cohort. METHODS Using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, men age 66 years or older with prostate cancer given continuous ADT for at least 6 months or who underwent bilateral orchiectomy (n = 19,079) were matched with men with prostate cancer who had never received ADT. Treated and untreated groups were matched 1:1 (ie, hard-matched) on age, prior cancer treatment, and year of diagnosis and propensity-matched on comorbidities, medications, cardiovascular risk factors, prior fractures, and socioeconomic variables. Primary outcomes were development of AMI, sudden cardiac death, and diabetes. Fragility fracture was also examined. Results The cohort was observed for a mean of 6.47 years. In time-to-event analyses, ADT use was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.21) and fragility fracture (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.77) but not with AMI (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.00) or sudden cardiac death (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.10). Increasing duration of ADT was associated with an excess risk of fragility fractures and diabetes but not cardiac outcomes. CONCLUSION Continuous ADT use for at least 6 months in older men is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and fragility fracture but not AMI or sudden cardiac death.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.Nutrients 10/2014; 6(10):4491-4519. DOI:10.3390/nu6104491 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The therapeutic effects and side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is a main treatment method for metastatic prostate cancer, are well known, but the metabolic effects have only recently been studied. This review describes the effects of ADT on body habitus, insulin resistance, lipid profiles, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The review was done by using KoreaMed and PubMed to search the medical literature related to prostate cancer, ADT, body habitus, lipid profile, diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. ADT increases fat mass and decreases lean body mass. Fat mostly accumulates in the subcutaneous area. ADT increases total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein, as well as the risk for insulin resistance and diabetes. ADT also increases the risk for cardiovascular events, but insufficient evidence is available for a correlation with mortality. ADT changes body habitus and lipid profiles and has different characteristics than those of classic metabolic syndrome, but it is related to insulin resistance and diabetes. ADT increases the risk for cardiovascular events. No consistent guidelines have been proposed for treating the metabolic effects of ADT, but the generally recommended treatment methods for lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease should be fully understood. Additional studies are necessary.Korean journal of urology 01/2015; 56(1):12-18. DOI:10.4111/kju.2015.56.1.12
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ABSTRACT: A recently published meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) showed that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) did not significantly increase cardiovascular mortality in prostate cancer patients. However, cardiovascular morbidity, which can impact quality of life, was not evaluated.World Journal of Urology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00345-014-1439-6 · 3.42 Impact Factor