Impact of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes
ABSTRACT PURPOSE Use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus but the risk of both acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cardiovascular mortality remain controversial because few outcomes and conflicting findings have been reported. We sought to clarify whether ADT is associated with these outcomes in a large, representative cohort. METHODS Using linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, men age 66 years or older with prostate cancer given continuous ADT for at least 6 months or who underwent bilateral orchiectomy (n = 19,079) were matched with men with prostate cancer who had never received ADT. Treated and untreated groups were matched 1:1 (ie, hard-matched) on age, prior cancer treatment, and year of diagnosis and propensity-matched on comorbidities, medications, cardiovascular risk factors, prior fractures, and socioeconomic variables. Primary outcomes were development of AMI, sudden cardiac death, and diabetes. Fragility fracture was also examined. Results The cohort was observed for a mean of 6.47 years. In time-to-event analyses, ADT use was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.21) and fragility fracture (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.77) but not with AMI (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.00) or sudden cardiac death (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.10). Increasing duration of ADT was associated with an excess risk of fragility fractures and diabetes but not cardiac outcomes. CONCLUSION Continuous ADT use for at least 6 months in older men is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and fragility fracture but not AMI or sudden cardiac death.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in nonmetastatic prostate cancer is unclear. Recent data suggests possible increase in the cardiovascular risks receiving ADT. The aim of the study was to investigate the cardiovascular outcomes in a cohort of Chinese nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients with no previously documented cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. 745 patients with no previously documented cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes mellitus diagnosed to have nonmetastatic prostate cancer were recruited. Of these, 517 patients received ADT and the remaining 228 did not. After a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 60 patients developed primary composite endpoint including (1) coronary artery disease, (2) congestive heart failure, and (3) ischemic stroke. Higher proportion of patients on ADT (51 patients, 9.9%) developed composite endpoint compared with those not on ADT (9 patients, 3.9%) with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-3.24, P = 0.04). Furthermore, Cox regression analysis revealed that only the use of ADT (HR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.03-4.25, P = 0.04) and hypertension (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.21-3.33, P < 0.01) were independent predictors for primary composite endpoint. Conclusion. ADT in Chinese patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer with no previously documented cardiovascular disease was associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular events.Journal of Oncology 04/2014; 2014:529468. DOI:10.1155/2014/529468
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ABSTRACT: Degarelix is a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist for the first-line treatment of androgen-dependent advanced prostate cancer. It has a direct mechanism of action that blocks the action of GnRH on the pituitary with no initial surge in gonadotrophin or testosterone levels. Degarelix is the most extensively studied and widely available GnRH antagonist worldwide. Clinical studies have demonstrated similar efficacy to the GnRH agonist leuprolide in achieving testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer. However, degarelix produces a faster suppression of testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA), with no testosterone surge or microsurges, thus preventing the risk of clinical flare in advanced disease. Clinical trials have demonstrated that degarelix can offer improved disease control when compared with a GnRH agonist in terms of superior PSA progression-free survival (suggesting that degarelix likely delays progression to castration-resistant disease), and a more significant impact on bone serum alkaline phosphatase and follicle-stimulating hormone. Degarelix is generally well tolerated, with no reports of systemic allergic reactions in any clinical studies. In conclusion, degarelix offers clinicians a rational first-line hormonal monotherapy option for the management of advanced prostate cancer.Therapeutic Advances in Urology 02/2013; 5(1):11-24. DOI:10.1177/1756287212461048
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ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the main treatment approach in advanced prostate cancer and in recent years has primarily involved the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. However, despite their efficacy, GnRH agonists have several drawbacks associated with their mode of action. These include an initial testosterone surge and testosterone microsurges on repeat administration. GnRH antagonists provide an alternative approach to ADT with a more direct mode of action that involves immediate blockade of GnRH receptors. Antagonists produce a more rapid suppression of testosterone (and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) without a testosterone surge or microsurges and appear to offer an effective and well tolerated option for the hormonal treatment of prostate cancer. Comparisons with GnRH agonists have shown GnRH antagonists to be at least as effective in achieving and maintaining castrate testosterone levels in patients with prostate cancer. Furthermore, with antagonists, the lack of an initial testosterone surge (which may cause clinical flare) may allow more rapid relief of symptoms related to prostate cancer, avoid the need for concomitant antiandrogens to prevent clinical flare (so avoiding any antiandrogen-associated adverse events) and allow GnRH antagonist use in patients with high tumour burden and/or acute problems such as spinal cord compression. Although several antagonists have been investigated, only degarelix and abarelix are currently available for clinical use in prostate cancer. Currently, degarelix is the most extensively studied and widely available agent in this class. Degarelix is one of a newer generation of antagonists which, in a comprehensive and ongoing clinical development programme, has been shown to provide rapid, profound and sustained testosterone suppression without the systemic allergic reactions associated with earlier antagonists. This review examines the currently available data on GnRH antagonists in prostate cancer.Therapeutic Advances in Urology 06/2011; 3(3):127-40. DOI:10.1177/1756287211414457