How different are diastereomorphous orientations of enantiomers in the liquid crystalline phases of PBLG and PBDG: a case study.
ABSTRACT The orientational properties of the two enantiomers of an example compound, namely isopinocampheol [(+)- and (-)-IPC] in the two enantiomers of a liquid crystalline phase, namely Poly-gamma-benzyl-L/D-glutamate (PBLG/PBDG) with the organic cosolvent CDCl(3), were investigated. The interactions can be either enantiomorphous, leading to equal orientations and residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), or diastereomorphous, leading to different orientations and RDCs. The difference between the two diastereomorphous orientations was determined to be rather small (5 degrees in the Euler angle beta). Furthermore, we investigated whether one of the two diastereomorphous interactions is favored.
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ABSTRACT: Structure determination of biomolecules by NMR has traditionally been based on nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs). Now there are additional sources of information that can complement NOEs in cases where positioning of remote parts of molecules is important, and where extension to larger and more complex systems is desired.Natural Structural Biology 08/1998; 5 Suppl:517-22.
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ABSTRACT: The analytical potential and enantioselective properties of lyotropic mesophases made by mixing two chemically different chiral polypeptides are described. Here we examine the case of a mixture of poly-gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) and poly-epsilon-carbobenzyloxy-L-lysine (PCBLL). We demonstrate that 2H NMR spectroscopy on these chiral oriented mixtures can discriminate both enantiomers and enantiotopic directions in prochiral molecules. Moreover, in such systems, degree of enantiodiscrimination, resolution, and sensitivity can be conjointly optimized by changing the relative proportion of the two polypeptides. Therefore, these new enantiodiscriminating media provide a favorable alternative to single-polypeptide mesophases with respect to stereochemical applications. At a more fundamental level, the present work points out that solute distribution in the vicinity of each polypeptide partly governs the degree of enantiodiscrimination and NMR relaxation rates. To this end, the experimental trends of solute NMR observables (Delta nu Q, T1) versus the fraction of peptide units of each polymer were analyzed by using a "mean-field" model derived from that proposed for mixtures of thermotropic nematic solvents, and based on the separation of intermolecular interactions between the solute and both polypeptides. This approach allows the relative solute-fiber affinities in these lyotropic systems to be determined. To identify the factors controlling solute-polypeptide affinities, we investigated various solutes (polar/apolar, rigid/flexible, achiral/prochiral/chiral molecules) using 2H NMR at natural abundance or on isotopically enriched solutes.Chemistry 02/2008; 14(13):4082-92. · 5.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report new and explicit experimental evidence of the differentiation of (1)H-(1)H, (13)C-(1)H, and (13)C-(2)H enantiotopic directions in prochiral molecules with C(s) and C(2v)symmetry dissolved in a chiral liquid-crystalline phase using (13)C and (2)H-[(1)H] NMR spectroscopy at the natural abundance level. The case of endo-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride, bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene, and ethyl alcohol oriented in organic solutions of poly-gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate (PBLG) or poly-epsilon-carbobenzyloxy-L-lysine (PCBLL) is investigated and discussed. Next, we describe the first NMR differentiation of enantiotopic directions in a C(2v) molecule with no prostereogenic carbon using malononitrile as a model. The various results presented in this work experimentally validate our recent theoretical arguments which predict that NMR spectra of nonplanar C(s) and C(2v) compounds embedded in a chiral oriented solvent should differ from those recorded in nonchiral oriented media, because their effective molecular symmetry point group (interacting molecule) is different from their molecular point group (isolated molecule). In addition, the differentiation of enantiotopic directions in C(2v) molecules exhibiting no prostereogenic tetrahedral center illustrates for the first time an old stereochemical hypothesis which speculates that "for molecules of the type CXXYY. the two X groups as well as the Y groups are equivalent and cannot be distinguished in chiral or achiral circumstances. However, the relationships between X and Y groups are not all equivalent. The four X-Y relationships may be ordered into two enantiotopic sets of two equivalent relationships" (Mislow, K.; Raban, M. Top. Stereochem. 1967, 1, 1) and validate the stereogenicity concepts proposed more recently by Fujita (Fujita, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1990, 112, 3390).Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2002; 123(48):12059-66. · 10.68 Impact Factor