Structural and functional implications of the alternative complement pathway C3 convertase stabilized by a staphylococcal inhibitor.
ABSTRACT Activation of the complement system generates potent chemoattractants and leads to the opsonization of cells for immune clearance. Short-lived protease complexes cleave complement component C3 into anaphylatoxin C3a and opsonin C3b. Here we report the crystal structure of the C3 convertase formed by C3b and the protease fragment Bb, which was stabilized by the bacterial immune-evasion protein SCIN. The data suggest that the proteolytic specificity and activity depend on the formation of dimers of C3 with C3b of the convertase. SCIN blocked the formation of a productive enzyme-substrate complex. Irreversible dissociation of the complex of C3b and Bb is crucial to complement regulation and was determined by slow binding kinetics of the Mg(2+)-adhesion site in Bb. Understanding the mechanistic basis of the central complement-activation step and microbial immune evasion strategies targeting this step will aid in the development of complement therapeutics.
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ABSTRACT: Cleavage of C5 by C5 convertase is the last enzymatic step in the complement activation cascade leading to the formation of the cytolytic proteolytically activated form of C5 (C5b)-9 complex. In the present study, we examined the effect of the density of C3b (the proteolytically activated form of C3) on the function of the noncatalytic subunit of natural surface-bound forms of the enzyme. A comparison of the kinetic parameters of C5 convertases assembled on three surfaces (zymosan, rabbit erythrocytes, and sheep erythrocytes) were similar and revealed that the average K:(m) decreased approximately 28-fold (5.2-0.18 microM) when the density of C3b was increased from approximately 18,000 to 400,000 C3b/cell. Very-high-affinity C5 convertases were generated when preformed C3 convertases were allowed to self amplify by giving them excess C3. These convertases exhibited K(m) from 0.016 to 0.074 microM, well below the normal plasma concentration of C5 in blood (0.37 microM). The results suggest that in serum convertases formed with monomeric C3b will be relatively inefficient in capturing C5 but will continue to cleave C3 opsonizing the cell surface for phagocytosis, whereas convertases formed with C3b-C3b complexes in areas of high C3b density will primarily cleave C5. The catalytic rate of these convertases approaches maximum velocity, thereby switching the enzyme from cleavage of C3 to cleavage of C5, and production of the cytolytic C5b-9 complex.The Journal of Immunology 03/2001; 166(4):2635-42. · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: Structure and function in rhodopsin: high-level expression of rhodopsin with restricted and homogeneous N-glycosylation by a tetracycline-inducible N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-negative HEK293S stable mammalian cell line.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An HEK293S cell line resistant to ricin was prepared by mutagenesis by using ethyl methanesulfonate. It was shown to lack N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI) activity, and consequently unable to synthesize complex N-glycans. The tetracycline-inducible opsin expression system was assembled into this GnTI(-) HEK293S cell line. Stable cell lines were isolated that gave tetracycline/sodium butyrate-inducible expression of the WT opsin gene at levels comparable with those observed in the parent tetracycline-inducible HEK293S cell line. Analysis of the N-glycan in rhodopsin expressed by the HEK293S GnTI(-) stable cell line showed it to be Man(5)GlcNAc(2). In a larger-scale expression experiment (1.1 liter) a WT opsin production level of 6 mg/liter was obtained. Further, the toxic constitutively active rhodopsin mutant, E113Q/E134Q/M257Y, previously shown to require inducible expression, has now been expressed in an HEK293S GNTI(-)-inducible cell line at levels comparable with those obtained with WT rhodopsin.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2002; 99(21):13419-24. · 9.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To provide insight into the structural and functional properties of human complement component 5 (C5), we determined its crystal structure at a resolution of 3.1 A. The core of C5 adopted a structure resembling that of C3, with the domain arrangement at the position corresponding to the C3 thioester being very well conserved. However, in contrast to C3, the convertase cleavage site in C5 was ordered and the C345C domain flexibly attached to the core of C5. Binding of the tick C5 inhibitor OmCI to C5 resulted in stabilization of the global conformation of C5 but did not block the convertase cleavage site. The structure of C5 may render possible a structure-based approach for the design of new selective complement inhibitors.Nature Immunology 08/2008; 9(7):753-60. · 26.01 Impact Factor