Diabetes impairs hippocampal function via advanced glycation end product mediated new neuron generation in animals with diabetes-related depression.
ABSTRACT The diabetes-induced reduction of neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate and its reversal with antidepressant medications implies a potential mechanism for diabetes-related depression and cognitive decline. In the following article, the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in hippocampal neurogenesis deficits in diabetic animals with depression has been further explained in the light of an in vitro study. Diabetes was induced in animals with the use of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, i.p.), and the animals then divided into those with and those without depression-like behaviors as analyzed by behavioral tests. The AGE formation inhibitor aminoguanidine (10 mg/kg) was administrated for an additional 4 weeks. Proliferating cells, their survival, and their phenotype fate were monitored with bromodeoxyuridine labeling and confocal laser microscopy. The presence of AGE peptides was determined with the use of a flow injection assay. Animals with diabetes and depressive symptoms displayed a reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis and an elevated serum level of AGE peptides, both of which were reversed by a 4-week regimen of aminoguanidine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which inhibits AGE formation; in addition, the depressive behaviors were improved. These findings provided in vivo evidence that diabetes impairs hippocampal function via the AGE-mediated generation of new neurons. This likely represents a putative mechanism that is responsible for diabetes-related depression and cognitive decline, and it suggests a potential approach for future research.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effects of advanced glycation endproducts on cognition and brain structure are poorly understood. We studied associations of the advanced glycation endproduct precursor methylglyoxal (MGO) with cognitive function and brain volumes in older people. METHODS: Nondemented participants in the Tasmanian Study of Cognition and Gait underwent cognitive testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging scans. Brain volumes were obtained by magnetic resonance imaging scan segmentation and statistical parametric mapping procedures. Serum MGO was measured after derivatization to methylquinoxaline by high pressure liquid chromatography and UV detection. Linear regression was used to examine associations of log-transformed MGO with cognitive scores and brain volumes adjusting for potential confounding by age, sex, education, mood, insulin resistance, history of stroke, vascular risk factors, alcohol intake, and psychoactive medication use. RESULTS: There were 378 participants, mean age 72.1 years (SD 7.1), 55% male. Greater MGO was associated with poorer memory (β = -.12, 95% confidence interval: -0.22, -0.02, p = .02) and executive function, the latter being greater among those with a history of stroke (MGO × stroke β = .48, 95% confidence interval: 0.17, 0.79, p = .002). Greater MGO was associated with lower grey matter volume (β = -6.42, 95% confidence interval -11.82, -1.11, p = .02) but not with white matter volume, white matter lesion volume, or hippocampal volume. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the investigation of the role of the advanced glycation endproduct precursor methylglyoxal in cognitive decline and neurodegeneration in older people.The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 04/2012; · 4.60 Impact Factor