Rapid confirmatory analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in bovine milk by rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT A rapid method has been developed to analyse carprofen (CPF), diclofenac (DCF), mefenamic acid (MFN), niflumic acid (NIFLU), naproxen (NAP), oxyphenylbutazone (OXYPHEN), phenylbutazone (PBZ) and suxibuzone (SUXI) residues in bovine milk. Milk samples are extracted with acetonitrile and sample extracts were purified on Evolute ABN solid phase extraction cartridges. Aliquots were analysed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) with a runtime of 6.5 min. The method was validated in bovine milk, according to the criteria defined in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. CCalpha values of 0.46, 1.08, 0.92, 1.26, 1.29, 2.12, 0.55 and 2.86 ng mL(-1) were determined for CPF, DCF, MFN, NIFLU, NAP, OXYPHEN, PBZ and SUXI, respectively. CCbeta values of 0.79, 1.85, 1.56, 2.15, 2.19, 3.62, 0.94 and 4.87 ng mL(-1) were determined for CPF, DCF, MFN, NIFLU, NAP, OXYPHEN, PBZ and SUXI, respectively. The measurement uncertainty of the method was estimated at 9, 28, 28, 45, 46, 45, 10 and 39% for CPF, DCF, MFN, NIFLU, NAP, OXYPHEN, PBZ and SUXI. Fortifying bovine milk samples (n=18) in three separate assays, show the accuracy of the method to be between 82 and 108%. The precision of the method, expressed as RSD values for the within-lab reproducibility at the three levels of fortification (5, 7.5 and 10 ng mL(-1)) was less than 16%, respectively. The advantage of the method is that low ng mL(-1) levels can be detected and quantitatively confirmed rapidly in milk and that 3 batches of samples can be analysed within a single day using RRLC-MS/MS with a runtime of 6.5 min.
Article: Development and validation of two multiresidue liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods based on a versatile extraction procedure for isolating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from bovine milk and muscle tissue.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The main difficulties in analysing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in food and biological samples are due to the tight non-covalent interactions established with matrix proteins and the amount of occurring fatty material. The present paper describes an effective extraction procedure able to isolate fifteen NSAIDs (acetaminophen, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, diclofenac, flunixin and its metabolite 5-hydroxy-flunixin, nimesulide, phenylbutazone, meclofenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, meloxicam, carprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen and etodolac) from bovine milk and muscle tissue through two succeeding steps: (a) deproteinisation/extraction with organic solvent, essential to lower the medium dielectric constant and, therefore, to release the analytes from matrix; (b) SPE clean-up on OASIS cartridges. Lipids were easily removed during low-temperature centrifugations. The advantages of the developed procedure pertain to the efficient removal of the fat substances (very low matrix effect and high recovery yields) and its versatility, since it can be applied both to milk and muscle with few adjustments due to the diversity of the two matrices. Ion-pairing reversed-phase chromatography combined with the negative electrospray detection was able to achieve low detection capabilities (CCβs) for all analytes and, in particular, for diclofenac whose Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in milk is 0.1 μg kg(-1). The methods were validated according to the guidelines of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and then applied for a small monitoring study. A number of samples showed traces of salicylic acid (SA), but its occurrence was not ascribed to a misuse of drugs (aspirin, salicylic acid) since SA, accumulating in plants in response to a pathogen attack, may be introduced into the food chain.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 07/2012; 404(5):1375-88. · 3.78 Impact Factor
Article: Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and their metabolites in milk by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used for treatment of animals. According to Council Directive 96/23/EC, residues of these drugs must be monitored because of the potential risk they pose to the consumers' health. For this reason an LC-MS-MS method was developed for detection of wide range of NSAIDs, including both "acidic" NSAIDs (carprofen, diclofenac, flunixin, meloxicam, phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, naproxen, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, firocoxib, rofecoxib, and celecoxib) and "basic" NSAIDs (four metamizole metabolites). Analytes were extracted from milk samples with acetonitrile in the presence of ammonium acetate. One portion of the extract was directly analyzed for the presence of metamizole metabolites; a second portion was cleaned with an amino cartridge. All NSAIDs were separated on a Phenomenex Luna C8(2) column and analyzed by LC-MS-MS in negative (acidic NSAIDs) and positive (metamizole metabolites) ion modes. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range 7-28%, and accuracy was in the range 71-116%. The method enabled detection of all the analytes with the expected sensitivity, below the recommended concentrations. The method fulfills the criteria for confirmatory methods and, because of its efficiency, may also be used for screening purposes. The procedure was also successfully verified in the proficiency test organized by EU-RL in 2010. As far as the authors are aware, this is one of the first methods capable of detecting diclofenac residues below the MRL in milk (0.1 μg kg(-1)). An additional advantage is the possibility of simultaneous determination of "acidic" NSAIDs and metamizole metabolites.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2012; 403(10):2955-63. · 3.78 Impact Factor