Identification and characterization of inhibitors of West Nile virus.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, USA.
Antiviral research (Impact Factor: 3.61). 07/2009; 83(1):71-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.03.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no antiviral therapy is currently available for clinical treatment of these pathogens. To identify flavivirus inhibitors, we performed a high-throughput screening of compound libraries using cells containing luciferase-reporting replicon of West Nile viruses (WNV). Five novel small molecular inhibitors of WNV were identified from libraries containing 96,958 compounds. The inhibitors suppress epidemic strain of WNV in cell culture, with EC(50) (50% effective concentration) values of <10microM and TI (therapeutic index) values of >10. Viral titer reduction assays, using various flaviviruses and nonflaviviruses, showed that the compounds have distinct antiviral spectra. Mode-of-action analysis showed that the inhibitors block distinct steps of WNV replication: four compounds inhibit viral RNA syntheses, while the other compound suppresses both viral translation and RNA syntheses. Biochemical enzyme assays showed that two compounds selectively inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), while another compound specifically inhibits both RdRp and methyltransferase. The identified compounds could potentially be developed for treatment of flavivirus infections.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genus Flavivirus contains a number of important pathogens of humans including yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Despite causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, commercially available vaccines only exist for YFV (live-attenuated), TBEV, and JEV (inactivated). Flavivirus vaccine research has been driven by the need for cheap, safe, thermally stable, and efficacious preparations amenable to use in developing nations. The creation of infectious cDNA clones of various flaviviruses has led to the development of genetically engineered, nucleic acid-delivered, attenuated live vaccine candidates. These provide effective immunity from a single immunisation, however share the same safety concerns as traditional live-attenuated vaccines. The generation of large internal deletions in the capsid gene of flavivirus genomes creates a vaccine that secretes large amounts of immunogenic prM/E particles from self-replicating RNA but does not form a spreading infection. Packaging of these capsid-deleted RNAs into virus-like particles (VLPs) using a cell line that produces capsid gene from another expression vector creates a pseudo-infectious vaccine that elicits a highly efficient immune response from a single dose and is safer than infectious virus. However, production of these VLPs is cumbersome and the resulting product is heat labile. Providing the capsid gene in trans from another promoter but within the same plasmid DNA as the capsid-deleted viral genome creates a DNA vaccine capable of producing VLPs in vivo. Uptake of this plasmid DNA results in the generation of self-replicating, capsid-deleted RNA and the capsid protein in the same cell, leading to production of secreted single-round infectious particles (SRIPs). These SRIPs then deliver capsid-deleted RNA to adjacent cells where it replicates to produce more prM/E particles. As functional capsid cannot be produced in SRIP-infected cells, further spread does not occur. SRIP-producing DNA was shown to be highly effective in mice and horses and provides an easier to manufacture and thermally stable alternative to other vaccine candidates currently being developed.
    12/2010: pages 299-320;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1,2-Benzisothiazol-3(2H)-ones and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles individually have recently attracted considerable interest in drug discovery, including as antibacterial and antifungal agents. In this study, a series of functionalized 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,3,4-oxadiazole hybrid derivatives were synthesized and subsequently screened against Dengue and West Nile virus proteases. Ten out of twenty-four compounds showed greater than 50% inhibition against DENV2 and WNV proteases ([I]=10μM). The IC(50) values of compound 7n against DENV2 and WNV NS2B/NS3 were found to be 3.75±0.06 and 4.22±0.07μM, respectively. The kinetics data support a competitive mode of inhibition by compound 7n. Molecular modeling studies were performed to delineate the putative binding mode of this series of compounds. This study reveals that the hybrid series arising from the linking of the two scaffolds provides a suitable platform for conducting a hit-to-lead optimization campaign via iterative structure-activity relationship studies, in vitro screening and X-ray crystallography.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 11/2012; · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense RNA arbovirus responsible for recent outbreaks of severe neurological disease within the US and Europe. Large-scale analyses of antiviral compounds that inhibit virus replication have been limited due to the lack of an adequate WN reporter virus. Previous attempts to insert a reporter into the 3' untranslated region of WNV generated unstable viruses, suggesting that this region does not accommodate additional nucleotides. Here, we engineered two WNV infectious clones containing insertions at the Capsid (C)/Capsid Anchor (CA) junction of the viral polyprotein. Recombinant viruses containing a TAT(1-67) or Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc) gene at this location were successfully recovered. However, rapid loss of most, if not all, of the reporter sequence occurred for both viruses, indicating that the reporter viruses were not stable. While the GLuc viruses predominantly reverted back to wild-type WNV length, the TAT viruses retained up to 75 additional nucleotides of the reporter sequence. These additional nucleotides were stable over at least five passages and did not significantly alter WNV fitness. Thus, the C/CA junction of WNV can tolerate additional nucleotides, though insertions are subject to certain constraints.
    Viruses 01/2014; 6(4):1637-53. · 2.51 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014