Article

Analysis of early nephron patterning reveals a role for distal RV proliferation in fusion to the ureteric tip via a cap mesenchyme-derived connecting segment.

NHMRC Principal Research Fellow, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.64). 07/2009; 332(2):273-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.05.578
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT While nephron formation is known to be initiated by a mesenchyme-to-epithelial transition of the cap mesenchyme to form a renal vesicle (RV), the subsequent patterning of the nephron and fusion with the ureteric component of the kidney to form a patent contiguous uriniferous tubule has not been fully characterized. Using dual section in situ hybridization (SISH)/immunohistochemistry (IHC) we have revealed distinct distal/proximal patterning of Notch, BMP and Wnt pathway components within the RV stage nephron. Quantitation of mitoses and Cyclin D1 expression indicated that cell proliferation was higher in the distal RV, reflecting the differential developmental programs of the proximal and distal populations. A small number of RV genes were also expressed in the early connecting segment of the nephron. Dual ISH/IHC combined with serial section immunofluorescence and 3D reconstruction revealed that fusion occurs between the late RV and adjacent ureteric tip via a process that involves loss of the intervening ureteric epithelial basement membrane and insertion of cells expressing RV markers into the ureteric tip. Using Six2-eGFPCre x R26R-lacZ mice, we demonstrate that these cells are derived from the cap mesenchyme and not the ureteric epithelium. Hence, both nephron patterning and patency are evident at the late renal vesicle stage.

1 Follower
 · 
104 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mammalian kidney is derived from progenitor cells in intermediate mesoderm. During embryogenesis, progenitor cells expressing the Wilms tumour suppressor gene, WT1, are induced to differentiate in response to WNT signals from the ureteric bud. In hereditary Wilms tumours, clonal loss of WT1 precludes the beta-catenin pathway response and leads to precancerous nephrogenic rests. We hypothesized that WT1 normally primes progenitor cells for differentiation by suppressing the enhancer of zeste2 gene (EZH2), involved in epigenetic silencing of differentiation genes. In human mesenchymal stem cells (amMSC), we show that exogenous WT1B represses EZH2 transcription. This leads to a dramatic decrease in the repressive lysine27 tri-methylation mark on histone H3 that silences beta-catenin gene expression. As a result, amMSC acquire responsiveness to WNT9b and increase expression of genes that mark the onset of nephron differentiation. Our observations suggest that bi-allelic loss of WT1 sustains the inhibitory histone methylation state that characterizes Wilms tumours.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.573576 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TRPA1 and TRPV1 are crucial pain mediators, but how their interaction contributes to persistent pain is unknown. Here, we identify Tmem100 as a potentiating modulator of TRPA1-V1 complexes. Tmem100 is coexpressed and forms a complex with TRPA1 and TRPV1 in DRG neurons. Tmem100-deficient mice show a reduction in inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia and TRPA1- but not TRPV1-mediated pain. Single-channel recording in a heterologous system reveals that Tmem100 selectively potentiates TRPA1 activity in a TRPV1-dependent manner. Mechanistically, Tmem100 weakens the association of TRPA1 and TRPV1, thereby releasing the inhibition of TRPA1 by TRPV1. A Tmem100 mutant, Tmem100-3Q, exerts the opposite effect; i.e., it enhances the association of TRPA1 and TRPV1 and strongly inhibits TRPA1. Strikingly, a cell-permeable peptide (CPP) containing the C-terminal sequence of Tmem100-3Q mimics its effect and inhibits persistent pain. Our study unveils a context-dependent modulation of the TRPA1-V1 complex, and Tmem100-3Q CPP is a promising pain therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.065 · 15.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: eLife digest The main function of the kidney is to filter blood to remove waste and regulate the amount of water and salt in the body. Structures in the kidney—called nephrons—do much of this work and blood is filtered in a part of each nephron called the glomerulus. The substances filtered out of the blood move into a series of ‘tubules’, another part of the nephrons, from where water and soluble substances are reabsorbed or excreted as the body requires. If the nephrons do not work correctly, it can lead to a wide range of health problems—from abnormal water and salt loss to dangerously high blood pressure. For organs and tissues to develop in an embryo, signalling pathways help cells to communicate with each other. These pathways control what type of cells the embryonic cells become and also help neighbouring cells work together to form specialised structures with particular functions. Much is unknown about how the nephron develops, including how its different structures coordinate their development with each other so that they form in the right position in the nephron. A protein called beta-catenin was already known to play an important role in the signalling pathways that trigger the earliest stages of nephron formation. Lindström et al. further investigated how this protein helps the nephron to develop by using a wide range of techniques, including growing genetically altered mouse kidneys in culture and capturing images of the developing nephrons with time-lapse microscopy. The combined results reveal that the levels of beta-catenin activity coordinate the development of the different structures in the nephron. The beta-catenin protein is not equally active in all parts of the nephron; instead, it forms a gradient of different activity levels. The highest levels of beta-catenin activity occur in the tubules at the furthest end of the developing nephron; this activity gradually decreases along the length of the nephron, and the glomerulus itself lacks beta-catenin activity altogether. Experimentally manipulating the levels of beta-catenin at different points along the nephron caused those cells to take on the wrong identity, causing parts of the nephron to form in the wrong place. Lindström et al. were also able to establish that the signalling pathway controlled by beta-catenin activity interacts with three other well-known signalling pathways as part of a network that controls nephron development. More research is required to find out which signal activates beta-catenin in the first place and from where in the kidney this signal comes. It also remains to be discovered how a particular cell in the tubule interprets the exact activities of the different signals to give the cell its specific identity for that place in the nephron. A better understanding of these sorts of processes will eventually help build new kidneys for people with kidney failure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04000.002
    eLife Sciences 01/2014; 4. DOI:10.7554/eLife.04000 · 8.52 Impact Factor