Genetic cathepsin B deficiency reduces beta-amyloid in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein.
ABSTRACT Neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides participate in Alzheimer's disease (AD); therefore, reduction of Abeta generated from APP may provide a therapeutic approach for AD. Gene knockout studies in transgenic mice producing human Abeta may identify targets for reducing Abeta. This study shows that knockout of the cathepsin B gene in mice expressing human wild-type APP (hAPPwt) results in substantial decreases in brain Abeta40 and Abeta42 by 67% and decreases in levels of the C-terminal beta-secretase fragment (CTFbeta) derived from APP. In contrast, knockout of cathepsin B in mice expressing hAPP with the rare Swedish (Swe) and Indiana (Ind) mutations had no effect on Abeta. The difference in reduction of Abeta in hAPPwt mice, but not in hAPPSwe/Ind mice, shows that the transgenic model can affect cathepsin B gene knockout results. Since most AD patients express hAPPwt, these data validate cathepsin B as a target for development of inhibitors to lower Abeta in AD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Greg Hook, Jun 03, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Tim Kacprowski[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One of the central research questions on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the elucidation of the molecular signatures triggered by the amyloid cascade of pathological events. Next-generation sequencing allows the identification of genes involved in disease processes in an unbiased manner. We have combined this technique with the analysis of two AD mouse models: (1) The 5XFAD model develops early plaque formation, intraneuronal Aβ aggregation, neuron loss, and behavioral deficits. (2) The Tg4-42 model expresses N-truncated Aβ4-42 and develops neuron loss and behavioral deficits albeit without plaque formation. Our results show that learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze and fear conditioning tasks in Tg4-42 mice at 12 months of age are similar to the deficits in 5XFAD animals. This suggested that comparative gene expression analysis between the models would allow the dissection of plaque-related and -unrelated disease relevant factors. Using deep sequencing differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and subsequently verified by quantitative PCR. Nineteen DEGs were identified in pre-symptomatic young 5XFAD mice, and none in young Tg4-42 mice. In the aged cohort, 131 DEGs were found in 5XFAD and 56 DEGs in Tg4-42 mice. Many of the DEGs specific to the 5XFAD model belong to neuroinflammatory processes typically associated with plaques. Interestingly, 36 DEGs were identified in both mouse models indicating common disease pathways associated with behavioral deficits and neuron loss.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 04/2014; 6:75. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00075 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Alzheimer¿s disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral deposition of ß-amyloid peptide (Aß). Aß is produced by sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by ß- and ¿-secretases. Many studies have demonstrated that the internalization of APP from the cell surface can regulate Aß production, although the exact organelle in which Aß is produced remains contentious. A number of recent studies suggest that intracellular trafficking also plays a role in regulating Aß production, but these pathways are relatively under-studied. The goal of this study was to elucidate the intracellular trafficking of APP, and to examine the site of intracellular APP processing.ResultsWe have tagged APP on its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail with photoactivatable Green Fluorescent Protein (paGFP). By photoactivating APP-paGFP in the Golgi, using the Golgi marker Galactosyltranferase fused to Cyan Fluorescent Protein (GalT-CFP) as a target, we are able to follow a population of nascent APP molecules from the Golgi to downstream compartments identified with compartment markers tagged with red fluorescent protein (mRFP or mCherry); including rab5 (early endosomes) rab9 (late endosomes) and LAMP1 (lysosomes). Because ¿-cleavage of APP releases the cytoplasmic tail of APP including the photoactivated GFP, resulting in loss of fluorescence, we are able to visualize the cleavage of APP in these compartments. Using APP-paGFP, we show that APP is rapidly trafficked from the Golgi apparatus to the lysosome; where it is rapidly cleared. Chloroquine and the highly selective ¿-secretase inhibitor, L685, 458, cause the accumulation of APP in lysosomes implying that APP is being cleaved by secretases in the lysosome. The Swedish mutation dramatically increases the rate of lysosomal APP processing, which is also inhibited by chloroquine and L685, 458. By knocking down adaptor protein 3 (AP-3; a heterotetrameric protein complex required for trafficking many proteins to the lysosome) using siRNA, we are able to reduce this lysosomal transport. Blocking lysosomal transport of APP reduces Aß production by more than a third.Conclusion These data suggests that AP-3 mediates rapid delivery of APP to lysosomes, and that the lysosome is a likely site of Aß production.Molecular Brain 08/2014; 7(1):54. DOI:10.1186/s13041-014-0054-1 · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mononuclear phagocytes including monocytes and macrophages, are important defense components of innate immunity, but can be detrimental in HIV-1 infection by serving as the principal reservoirs of virus in brain and triggering a strong immune response. These viral reservoirs represent a challenge to HIV-1 eradication since they continue producing virus in tissue despite antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) involve alterations to the blood-brain barrier and migration of activated HIV-1 infected monocytes to the brain with subsequent induced immune activation response. Our group recently showed that HIV replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) is associated with increased cystatin B. This cysteine protease inhibitor also inhibits the interferon-induced antiviral response by decreasing levels of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT-1. These recent discoveries reveal novel mechanisms of HIV persistence that could be targeted by new therapeutic approaches to eliminate HIV in macrophage reservoirs. However, cystatin B has been also associated with neuroprotection. Cystatin B is an inhibitor of the cysteine protease cathepsin B, a potent neurotoxin. During HIV-1 infection cystatin B and cathepsin B are upregulated in macrophages, meanwhile there is a reduction in cystatin/cathepsin interactions, leading to increased cathepsin B secretion and activity that induce neuronal apoptosis. Increased intracellular expression of both proteins was recently found in monocytes from Hispanic women with HAND. These findings provide new evidence for the role of cathepsin /cystatin system in the neuropathogenesis induced by HIV-infected macrophages. We summarize recent research on cystatin B and one of its substrates, cathepsin B, in HIV replication in macrophages and neuropathogenesis.Current HIV Research 05/2014; DOI:10.2174/1570162X12666140526120249 · 2.14 Impact Factor