Plant roots take up numerous minerals from the soil. Some minerals (e.g., K(+)) are essential nutrients and others (e.g., Na(+)) are toxic for plant growth and development. In addition to the absolute level, the balance among the minerals is critical for their physiological functions. For instance, [K(+)]/[Na(+)] ratio and homeostasis often determine plant growth rate. Either low-K or high-Na in the soil represents a stress condition that severely affects plant life and agricultural production. Earlier observations indicated that higher soil Ca2(+) improve plants growth under low-K or high-Na condition, implying functional interaction among the three cations. Recent studies have begun to delineate the signaling mechanisms underlying such interactions. Either low-K(+) or high-Na(+) can trigger cellular Ca2(+) changes that lead to activation of complex signaling networks. One such network consists of Ca2(+) sensor proteins (e.g., CBLs) interacting with their target kinases (CIPKs). The CBL-CIPK signaling modules interact with and regulate the activity of a number of transporting proteins involved in the uptake and translocation of K(+) and Na(+), maintaining the "balance" of these cations in plants under stress conditions.
"A network of upstream regulatory genes controls the transcriptional regulatory networks and includes different proteins that integrate calcium signaling with protein phosphorylation to decode particularlized stress signals and activate acclimation responses. This network includes histidine kinases (HK); receptor like kinases; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK cascades); calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPK); and different calcium channels, pumps, and calcium binding proteins such as calmodulin (CAM) and calcineurin B-like proteins (CBL) (Sreenivasulu et al. 2007; Jenkins, 2009; Luan et al. 2009; Tran et al. 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ever increasing demand of growing world population compounded with heightened levels of water scarcity in major agro climatic zones poses major challenge in sustaining agricultural productivity. Drought tolerance trait based research has been the target of plant breeders to ameliorate the effects of water stress for past many years. In this review, discussions on the traits of interest targeted by breeders for drought tolerance and the main bottlenecks in way of development of drought tolerant varieties is mentioned. The possible biotechnological intervention in screening, elucidation and development of drought tolerant crop varieties is also discussed. Biotechnological solutions for development of drought tolerant varieties can resolve the long standing issue of crop loss due to prevalence this abiotic stress in all the major agriculturally important crop species.
"It is assumed that CBL-CIPK interaction pairs relay Ca 2þ signals through the phosphorylation of target proteins. Most CBLs and CIPKs reported so far are involved in abiotic stress response and plant nutrient acquisition (Luan et al., 2009). However, their roles in root development are poorly understood. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcinerin B-like (CBL) protein family represents calcium sensors that transmit calcium signal through interactions with CBL-interacting protein kinases(CIPKs), a group of Ser/Thr protein kinases. The CBL-CIPK signal pathways play important roles in response to environmental stress, and development processes in plants. However, the role and mechanism of the CBL-CIPK signal pathways in the development of rice roots are largely unknown. In present study, we investigated the role of OsCBL1, a calcium binding protein, in lateral root development in rice. Compared with wild-type plants, the OsCBL1-knockdown plants showed shorter lateral roots. Internal hormone analysis demonstrated that the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level was dramatically reduced in the roots of OsCBL1-knockdown plants. Exogenous IAA could recover the phenotypes of shorter lateral roots in the OsCBL1-knockdown plants. In addition, we detected down-regulation of the genes involved in auxin-biosynthesis and several auxin-induced genes in the OsCBL1-knockdown plants such as Aux/IAA and MADS. Our results suggest that OsCBL1 is involved in lateral root development in rice by affecting auxin-biosynthesis.
Journal of Genetics and Genomics 03/2015; 42(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jgg.2015.03.004 · 3.59 Impact Factor
"As shown in Experiment 1, the addition of gypsum resulted in the desorption of exchangeable Na. In spite of improved pH conditions, the elevated concentration of soluble Na in the gypsum-amended soils could be toxic to the plants and therefore become a constraint to the growth of plants (Luan et al., 2009). This explains the observed poor growth performance for all the test plant species except for Digit grass, which was well adapted to the soluble Na-rich conditions (Brauer and Wolfson, 1986). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of microcosm experiments were conducted. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of Ca/Mg-bearing materials on CO2 sequestration in highly alkaline sodic soils (Sodosol) through carbonation and biomass production. Application of gypsum resulted in an increase in inorganic carbon and a decrease in organic carbon. The addition of talc did not significantly enhance carbonate formation. Soluble CaCl2 and MgCl2 did not have significantly better effects on soil carbonation, as compared to gypsum. The one-year growth experiment using five widely cultivated pasture grasses revealed that accumulation of carbonates following gypsum application could be inhibited by plant growth; the organic acids secreted from plant roots were likely to facilitate soil carbonate dissolution. In comparison with pedogenic carbonation, carbon sequestration by biomass production was much more evident. However, the biomass carbon gain varied markedly among the five species with Digitaria eriantha showing the highest biomass carbon gain. This further enhanced the accumulation of soil organic carbon. At the end of the experiment, an estimated CO2 sequestering capacity of 93 t/ha was achieved. The research findings have implications for cost-benefit analysis of alkaline soil reclamation projects.
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