Synthesis of highly porous crosslinked elastin hydrogels and their interaction with fibroblasts in vitro.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
Biomaterials (Impact Factor: 8.31). 07/2009; 30(27):4550-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.05.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this study the feasibility of using high pressure CO2 to produce porous alpha-elastin hydrogels was investigated. Alpha-elastin was chemically crosslinked with hexamethylene diisocyanate that can react with various functional groups in elastin such as lysine, cysteine, and histidine. High pressure CO2 substantially affected the characteristics of the fabricated hydrogels. The pore size of the hydrogels was enhanced 20-fold when the pressure was increased from 1 bar to 60 bar. The swelling ratio of the samples fabricated by high pressure CO2 was also higher than the gels produced under atmospheric pressure. The compression modulus of alpha-elastin hydrogels was increased as the applied strain magnitude was modified from 40% to 80%. The compression modulus of hydrogels produced under high pressure CO2 was 3-fold lower than the gels formed at atmospheric conditions due to the increased porosity of the gels produced by high pressure CO2. The fabrication of large pores within the 3D structures of these hydrogels substantially promoted cellular penetration and growth throughout the matrices. The highly porous alpha-elastin hydrogel structures fabricated in this study have potential for applications in tissue engineering.

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    ABSTRACT: Photocrosslinked hydrogels reinforced by microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared from a methacrylate-functionalized fish elastin polypeptide and MFC dispersed in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). First, a water-soluble elastin peptide with a molecular weight of ca. 500 g/mol from the fish bulbus arteriosus was polymerized by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), a condensation reagent, and then modified with 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate (MOI) to yield a photocrosslinkable fish elastin polypeptide. The product was dissolved in DMSO and irradiated with UV light in the presence of a radical photoinitiator. We obtained hydrogels successfully by substitution of DMSO with water. The composite gel with MFC was prepared by UV irradiation of the photocrosslinkable elastin polypeptide mixed with dispersed MFC in DMSO, followed by substitution of DMSO with water. The tensile test of the composite gels revealed that the addition of MFC improved the tensile properties, and the shape of the stress-strain curve of the composite gel became more similar to the typical shape of an elastic material with an increase of MFC content. The rheology measurement showed that the elastic modulus of the composite gel increased with an increase of MFC content. The cell proliferation test on the composite gel showed no toxicity.
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogels, which have become a central component of numerous strategies in regenerative medicine, have recently been designed to include pores as a means to facilitate cell ingrowth and facilitate transport. Herein, we present the formation of macro-porous hydrogels by a novel fabrication method termed cryotemplated photopolymerization. In contrast to chemically-induced cryogelation, our cryotemplation method separates the creation of pores from the crosslinking of the polymer, which allows templating of hydrogels using both porogens and light. This method allows separately frozen pieces to be joined during the photopolymerization, without the use of a mold, to form complex architectures. The size of the pores in the hydrogels could be controlled by multiple methods, thus providing a versatile platform for numerous tissue engineering applications. Additionally, these hydrogels were capable of functionalization with peptides using techniques that did not interfere with gelation. Furthermore, porous hydrogels could be formed under conditions suitable for cell freezing thereby allowing for cell encapsulation. These studies characterize a hydrogel fabrication strategy that enables the creation of porous scaffolds in complex architectures, while retaining the potential to chemically functionalize the hydrogels.
    07/2014; 2(28):4521-4530. DOI:10.1039/C4TB00585F
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews cell-laden hydrogels focusing on their impact and recent trends in tissue engineering. Tissue engineering aims to develop functionalized tissues and organs for repair and regeneration of defective body parts with help of cells and engineered matrices called scaffold. Scaffold plays a key role in tissue engineering as a supporting system to accommodate cell attachment, proliferation, migration and differentiation into a specific tissue. Scaffolds in the form of hydrogels are widely used as a support system for engineering tissues owing to their functional properties such as biocompatibility, matching physical, mechanical and chemical properties to the native niche, providing microenvironment for cells to grow and infiltrate into three-dimensional (3D) space and for providing adequate nutrient and oxygen supplies. To optimize the scaffold properties and its compatibility with native niche, cell-laden hydrogel is an appealing option that helps engineering potential tissue constructs with biomimetic structure and function. In this article, therefore, we review cell-laden hydrogels and their applications in tissue engineering with special emphasis on different types of gel scaffolds and their functional properties. Recent trends in hydrogel-based scaffolding systems, especially stem cell-laden hydrogels, gradient hydrogels, and their potential in engineering cells and tissues are also discussed. The review is expected to be useful for readers to gain an in-sight on the cell-laden hydrogel as a promising scaffolding system for tissue engineering applications such as bone, cartilage, cardiac and neural.
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May 17, 2014