Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
ABSTRACT In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important cause of gonadal dysfunction and infertility. In the last decade several papers have focused on the origin and pathogenesis of these tumours. In this paper we review the embryological, histological, biochemical and clinical features of TART and discuss the treatment options. Furthermore, we propose a new five-stage classification of TART, based on sonographic, clinical and biochemical parameters, that may lead to a better follow up and treatment of patients with TART.
Article: Leydig Cell Tumor Associated with Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors in a Patient with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of inherited autosomal recessive disorders characterized by enzyme defects in the steroidogenic pathways that lead to the biosynthesis of cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Chronic excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation may result in hyperplasia of ACTH-sensitive tissues in adrenal glands and other sites such as the testes, causing testicular masses known as testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) are make up a very small number of all testicular tumors and can be difficult to distinguish from TARTs. This distinction is interesting because LCTs and TARTs require different therapeutic approaches. Hereby, we present an unusual case of a 19-year-old patient with CAH due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, who presented with TARTs and an epididymal Leydig cell tumor.Case reports in urology. 01/2012; 2012:648643.
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ABSTRACT: The treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is complex. In addition to disease control, important therapeutic goals are the maintenance of normal growth and the acquisition of normal reproductive function. Here, data regarding final adult height (FH) in patients with CAH will be reviewed. Additional difficulties associated with CAH, including risks of obesity and hypertension, will be discussed. Information about fertility and reproductive outcomes in men and women with CAH will also be summarized. Although the treatment of each child with CAH needs to be individualized, close medical followup and laboratory monitoring along with good compliance can often result in positive clinical outcomes.International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 01/2010; 2010:298937.
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ABSTRACT: Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and "on-time" puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 01/2010; 2010:625105.