Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
ABSTRACT In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important cause of gonadal dysfunction and infertility. In the last decade several papers have focused on the origin and pathogenesis of these tumours. In this paper we review the embryological, histological, biochemical and clinical features of TART and discuss the treatment options. Furthermore, we propose a new five-stage classification of TART, based on sonographic, clinical and biochemical parameters, that may lead to a better follow up and treatment of patients with TART.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TART) are the nodular testicular lesions deriving from the adrenal remnant tissue reported in boys and men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Until now, the diagnostics of TART have been based on a combination of clinical features, imaging methods (primarily two dimensional ultrasound - 2D US), response of the foci to glycocorticosteroid (GCS) therapy and exclusion of the neoplastic process. Application of 2D US supplies however a limited range of information about the volume, demarcation, structure and vascularization of the lesions. OBJECTIVE: To define whether the use of 3D US, power Doppler and elastography changes the algorithm of the diagnostics and monitoring or treatment of TART. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, modern ultrasound techniques such as 3D US and elastography were introduced in two boys with TART. RESULTS: The 3D power Doppler option gives the opportunity for accurate assessment of the volume of testes and adrenal tissue foci and their vascularization. Sonographic elastography allows the assessment of stiffness of adrenal tissue areas compared to normal testis parenchyma. CONCLUSION: The use of these modern techniques enables more adequate and advanced diagnostics, and more precise monitoring of the effects of treatment in patients with TART.Journal of pediatric urology 03/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is the commonest genetic endocrine disorder. Mutations in the 21-hydroxylase gene account for 95 % of cases. CAH is classified according to symptoms and signs and to age of presentation. The clinical phenotype is typically classified as classic, the severe form, or nonclassic (NCF), the mild or late-onset form. Classic CAH is a life-long chronic disorder. In childhood, treatment focuses on genital surgery and optimization of growth and pubertal development. Priorities change with increasing age, typically focusing on fertility in early adult life and prevention of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in middle and older age. Recent studies highlight the importance of long-term follow-up of these patients and of transitional care between childhoods to adult life. In nonclassic CAH women, subfertility is mild compared with the classic form and seems to be mainly due to hormonal imbalance. Menstrual cycle or ovulation disorders observed in these women who consulted for infertility are in most cases corrected by hydrocortisone treatment, which led to simultaneous lowering of plasma androgen levels and rapid occurrence of pregnancy. Hydrocortisone also reduces the incidence of miscarriages. Several studies have reported that near 60 % of nonclassic CAH patients are carriers of a severe mutation. These patients may therefore give birth to a child with the classical form of CAH if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Due to the high frequency of CYP21A2 mutations in the general population, it is essential to genotype the partner of NC-CAH patients with one severe mutation to offer genetic counselling.La Presse Médicale 03/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) describes a group of autosomal recessive disorders where there is impairment of cortisol biosynthesis. CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency accounts for 95% of cases and shows a wide range of clinical severity. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapies are the mainstays of treatment of CAH. The optimal treatment for adults with CAH continues to be a challenge. Important long-term health issues for adults with CAH affect both men and women. These issues may either be due to the disease or to steroid treatment and may affect final height, fertility, cardiometabolic risk, bone metabolism, neuro-cognitive development and the quality-of-life. Patients with CAH should be regularly followed-up from childhood to adulthood by multidisciplinary teams who have knowledge of CAH. Optimal replacement therapy, close clinical and laboratory monitoring, early life-style interventions, early and regular fertility assessment and continuous psychological management are needed to improve outcome.Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 10/2013; 17(Suppl1):S14-S17.