Fronto-temporal dysregulation in remitted bipolar patients: an fMRI delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMS) study.
ABSTRACT Bipolar disorder is associated with working memory (WM) impairments that persist during periods of symptomatic remission. However, the neural underpinnings of these deficits are not well understood.
Fifteen clinically remitted bipolar patients and 15 demographically matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a novel delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMS) task. This nonverbal DNMS task involves two conditions, one requiring the organization of existing memory traces ('familiarity'), and one involving the formation of new memory traces ('novelty'). These processes are thought to differentially engage the prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, respectively.
Although behavioral performance did not differ between groups, bipolar patients and controls exhibited significantly different patterns of neural activity during task performance. Patients showed relative hyperactivation in the right prefrontal gyrus and relative hypoactivation in visual processing regions compared to healthy subjects across both task conditions. During the novelty condition, patients showed a pattern of hypoactivation relative to controls in medial temporal regions, with relative hyperactivation in the anterior cingulate.
These findings suggest that disruption in fronto-temporal neural circuitry may underlie memory difficulties frequently observed in patients with bipolar disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediated cognitive and emotional processing deficits in bipolar disorder lead to functional limitations even during periods of mood stability. Alterations of sleep and circadian functioning are well-documented in bipolar disorder, but there is little research directly examining the mechanistic role of sleep and/or circadian rhythms in the observed cognitive and emotional processing deficits. We systematically review the cognitive and emotional processing deficits reliant upon PFC functioning of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and in healthy individuals deprived of sleep. The evidence from two parallel lines of investigation suggests that sleep and circadian rhythms may be involved in the cognitive and emotional processing deficits seen in bipolar disorder through overlapping neurobiological systems. We discuss current models of bipolar highlighting the PFC-limbic connections and discuss inclusion of sleep-related mechanisms. Sleep and circadian dysfunction is a core feature of bipolar disorder and models of neurobiological abnormalities should incorporate chronobiological measures. Further research into the role of sleep and circadian rhythms in cognition and emotional processing in bipolar disorder is warranted.Clinical psychology review 08/2012; 32(7):650-63. DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.07.003 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent neuroimaging studies have uncovered much about the specific neural deficits in adult bipolar disorder (ABD), but despite promising results, neuroimaging research for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is still developing. The neuroimaging literature is highly heterogeneous, varying in the paradigms used and in participants' mood states and medication status. Despite this variability, several dominant patterns emerge. In response to emotional stimuli, both ABD and PBD show limbic hyperactivity coupled with hypoactivity in ventral prefrontal emotion regulation systems. This pattern occurred most robustly in response to negative incidental stimuli and was especially apparent in manic PBD. ABD showed more variability in ventral prefrontal activity, possibly due to maturational and medication factors. On numerous cognitive paradigms, PBD showed dorsal prefrontal hypoactivity linked to ventral dysfunction, whereas ABD showed compensatory frontal, parietal, and temporal activity with paradigm-specific variations. In emotion-cognition interaction paradigms, patients show dysregulation in regions interfacing between cognitive and emotional brain systems (e.g., ventral prefrontal and cingulate cortices), which expend extra effort to process emotional stimuli effectively and recruit additional posterior attention systems to cope with affective instability. In addition, novel functional connectivity techniques have uncovered connectivity deficits between frontal and limbic regions in ABD and PBD at rest and during active emotional and cognitive tasks. Finally, the neuroimaging literature currently lacks cross-sectional studies comparing PBD with ABD and longitudinal studies following children and adolescents with BD into adulthood. Such studies would provide important insights into patients' prognosis and would determine targets for early interventions in the evolving illness diathesis.The Israel journal of psychiatry and related sciences 01/2012; 49(2):75-83. · 0.72 Impact Factor
PET Clinics 04/2010; 5(2):169-183. DOI:10.1016/j.cpet.2010.03.004