Physical Activity in Relation to Long‐term Weight Maintenance After Intentional Weight Loss in Premenopausal Women

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 06/2009; 18(1):167-74. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.170
Source: PubMed


The type and amount of physical activity (PA) needed for prevention of weight regain are not well understood. We prospectively examined the associations between patterns of discretionary PA and 6-year maintenance of intentional weight loss among 4,558 healthy premenopausal women who were 26-45 years old in 1991 and had lost >5% of their body weight in the previous 2 years. Participants reported their PA and weight in 1991 and 1997. The outcome was weight regain, defined as regaining in 1997 >30% of the lost weight between 1989 and 1991. Between 1991 and 1997, 80% of women regained >30% of their previous intentional weight loss. An increase of 30 min/day in total discretionary activity between 1991 and 1997 was associated with less weight regain (-1.36 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.61, -1.12), particularly among overweight women (BMI >/=25) (-2.45 kg, -3.12 to -1.78). Increased jogging or running was associated with less weight regain (-3.26 kg; -4.41 to -2.10) than increased brisk walking (-1.69 kg; -2.15 to -1.22) or other activities (-1.26 kg; -1.65 to -0.87). Compared to women who remained sedentary, women were less likely to regain >30% of the lost weight if they maintained 30+ min/day of discretionary PA (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 0.53 to 0.89) or increased to this activity level (OR = 0.48, 0.39 to 0.60). Conversely, risk was elevated in women who decreased their activity. Increased PA, particularly high intensity activities, is associated with better maintenance of weight loss. The benefits of activity were greater among overweight/obese than normal weight women.

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    • "In recent years, the benefits of exercise on health and wellness have become increasingly well known. Exercise has been found to reduce the severity and even reverse the previously stated medical conditions associated with physical inactivity, which in turn reduces the cost of medical needs and other indirect socioeconomic costs [18] [22] [23]. Perhaps more relevant to this review, exercise can improve mental health by offering relief from the symptoms of depression and anxiety, and by improving mood [24] [25] [26]; these effects make exercise a valuable tool in disrupting the vicious feedforward loop between mental illness and substance abuse [27] [28] [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The need for effective treatments for addiction and dependence to the illicit stimulant methamphetamine in primary care settings is increasing, yet no effective medications have been FDA approved to reduce dependence [1]. This is partially attributed to the complex and dynamic neurobiology underlying the various stages of addiction [2]. Therapeutic strategies to treat methamphetamine addiction, particularly the relapse stage of addiction, could revolutionize methamphetamine addiction treatment. In this context, preclinical studies demonstrate that voluntary exercise (sustained physical activity) could be used as an intervention to reduce methamphetamine addiction. Therefore, it appears that methamphetamine disrupts normal functioning in the brain and this disruption is prevented or reduced by engaging in exercise. This review discusses animal models of metham-phetamine addiction and sustained physical activity and the interactions between exercise and methamphetamine behaviors. The review highlights how methamphetamine and exercise affect neuronal plasticity and neurotoxicity in the adult mammalian striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, and presents the emerging mechanisms of exercise in attenuating intake and in preventing relapse to methamphetamine seeking in preclinical models of methamphetamine addiction.
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    • "In fact, moderate-intensity PA between 150 and 250 minutes per week only provide modest weight loss; greater amounts of PA of more than 250 minutes per week are associated with clinically significant weight loss [6]. The benefits of high intensity physical activities in maintaining weight loss is greater among overweight or obese than normal weight individuals [8]. Maintaining high levels of activity are also associated with smaller age-related gains in Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference [9]. "
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