Histoplanimetrical study on the spatial relationship of distribution of indigenous bacteria with mucosal lymphatic follicles in alimentary tract of rat.
ABSTRACT The spatial relationship between the distribution of indigenous bacteria (IB) and the situation of mucosal lymphatic follicles (LF) is histoplanimetrically studied in the rat alimentary tract. From the oral cavity to the nonglandular part of the stomach, IB adhered to the corneal layer of the most luminal mucosa. In the glandular part of the stomach, IB adhered only to the most luminal mucosa but not in the gastric pits. In the small intestine, IB consistently adhered around the apices of both intestinal villi and the domes, and their amounts decreased toward their basal portions. No IB entered the intestinal crypts. In the large intestine, IB consistently adhered to the most luminal mucosa. Numerous IB were suspended in the intestinal crypts of both the cecum and the proximal colon, whereas there were no IB in the crypts of the distal colon and the rectum. When IB spread over the basal portions of the intestinal villi, IB with the same morphology were detected on the neighboring LF, whereas no bacteria were detected on the neighboring LF, when IB were located in the apical to middle portions of the intestinal villi. This close relationship between the distribution of IB and mucosal LF was also observed in the large intestine. These results suggest that the most luminal mucosae are a fundamental settlement site of IB throughout the alimentary tract and that the hyperproliferation of IB's colonies might be detected by neighboring LF in the rat intestine.
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ABSTRACT: A portion of the minute chylomicrons less than 75 nm in diameter are transcytosed from the extravascular tissue into the subepithelial blood capillaries (sBC) in the villous apices of the rat jejunum. However, the details of the transportation mechanism have not been clarified. In this study, the endothelial receptor involved in the transportation of minute chylomicrons into the sBC's lumina was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically examined in intestinal villi of the rat jejunum. Immunopositivity for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor was detected on the luminal and basal surfaces of the endothelial cells of sBC in approximately 68% of those apices of jejunal villi that possessed numerous chylomicrons in the lamina propria, while VLDL receptor was detected on the endothelial cells of sBC in only approximately 8% of intestinal villi that possessed few or no chylomicrons in the lamina propria. No immunopositivity for LDL receptor was detected in the sBC of all intestinal villi. These findings suggest that VLDL receptor is expressed by the endothelial cells of the sBC in conjunction with the filling of the lamina propria of jejunal villi with many chylomicrons produced by the villous columnar epithelial cells and that the VLDL receptor mediates the transportation of minute chylomicrons, maybe VLDL, into the subepithelial portal blood from the extravascular tissue of the rat jejunal villi.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2014; 77(4). DOI:10.1292/jvms.14-0432 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an attempt to explore the microbial content of functionally critical niches of the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we targeted molecular microbial diagnostics of the crypts that contain the intestinal stem cells, which account for epithelial regeneration. As current evidence indicates, the gut microbiota affects epithelial regeneration; bacteria that are likely to primarily participate in this essential step of the gut, microbiota cross talk, have been identified. We show in this article that only the cecal and colonic crypts harbor resident microbiota in the mouse and that regardless of the line and breeding origin of these mice, this bacterial population is unexpectedly dominated by aerobic genera. Interestingly, this microbiota resembles the restricted microbiota found in the midgut of invertebrates; thus, the presence of our so-called "crypt-specific core microbiota" (CSCM) in the mouse colon potentially reflects a coevolutionary process under selective conditions that can now be addressed. We suggest that CSCM could play both a protective and a homeostatic role within the colon. This article is setting the bases for such studies, particularly by providing a bona fide--and essentially cultivable--crypt microbiota of reference. IMPORTANCE: Metagenomic typing of the whole-gut luminal microbiome was recently provided, revealing great opportunities for physiological and physiopathological analysis of the host-microbiota interface. On this basis, it appears increasingly important to analyze which niches of the gut exposed to a particular microbiota are of major functional importance, specifically focusing on the crypt, which accounts for permanent epithelial renewal, and to analyze how this microbiota compares to its luminal counterpart in composition and quantity. Crypt-specific core microbiotas may show themselves as important elements regarding crypt protection and homeostasis of its functions.mBio 04/2012; 3(3). DOI:10.1128/mBio.00116-12 · 6.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between the invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and the proliferation of epithelial cells was histoplanimetrically investigated in the rat ascending colon. Indigenous bacteria preferentially adhered to the intestinal superficial epithelial cells in the mesenterium-attached mucosa (MAM) compared to those in the mesenterium-non-attached mucosa (MNM). Intestinal crypts with indigenous bacteria were also significantly more frequently found in MAM than in MNM. Total epithelial cells, columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells were significantly more abundant in the intestinal crypts with no-indigenous bacteria in MAM (MAM-C) than those in MNM (MNM-C), whereas the columnar epithelial cells were less abundant in MAM-C than in the intestinal crypts with indigenous bacteria in MAM (MAM-C-B). Columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells immuno-positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in MAM-C were more abundant than those in MNM-C, but less abundant than those in MAM-C-B. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4 and -9 were immuno-positive in the striated borders of the intestinal superficial epithelial cells, but their positive intensities were weaker in MAM than in MNM. From these findings, indigenous bacteria were confirmed to preferentially settle on the intestinal superficial epithelium of MAM in the rat ascending colon, and low TLRs-expression might contribute to the preferential settlement of indigenous bacteria in MAM. The increase of proliferating epithelial cells is probably induced by the invasion of indigenous bacteria into the intestinal crypts of MAM.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 03/2013; 75(7). DOI:10.1292/jvms.13-0036 · 0.88 Impact Factor