Histoplanimetrical study on the spatial relationship of distribution of indigenous bacteria with mucosal lymphatic follicles in alimentary tract of rat.
ABSTRACT The spatial relationship between the distribution of indigenous bacteria (IB) and the situation of mucosal lymphatic follicles (LF) is histoplanimetrically studied in the rat alimentary tract. From the oral cavity to the nonglandular part of the stomach, IB adhered to the corneal layer of the most luminal mucosa. In the glandular part of the stomach, IB adhered only to the most luminal mucosa but not in the gastric pits. In the small intestine, IB consistently adhered around the apices of both intestinal villi and the domes, and their amounts decreased toward their basal portions. No IB entered the intestinal crypts. In the large intestine, IB consistently adhered to the most luminal mucosa. Numerous IB were suspended in the intestinal crypts of both the cecum and the proximal colon, whereas there were no IB in the crypts of the distal colon and the rectum. When IB spread over the basal portions of the intestinal villi, IB with the same morphology were detected on the neighboring LF, whereas no bacteria were detected on the neighboring LF, when IB were located in the apical to middle portions of the intestinal villi. This close relationship between the distribution of IB and mucosal LF was also observed in the large intestine. These results suggest that the most luminal mucosae are a fundamental settlement site of IB throughout the alimentary tract and that the hyperproliferation of IB's colonies might be detected by neighboring LF in the rat intestine.
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ABSTRACT: We describe some recent themes in the nutritional and chemical ecology of herbivores and the importance of a broad pharmacological view of plant nutrients and chemical defenses that we integrate as "Pharm-ecology". The central role that dose, concentration, and response to plant components (nutrients and secondary metabolites) play in herbivore foraging behavior argues for broader application of approaches derived from pharmacology to both terrestrial and aquatic plant-herbivore systems. We describe how concepts of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are used to better understand the foraging phenotype of herbivores relative to nutrient and secondary metabolites in food. Implementing these concepts into the field remains a challenge, but new modeling approaches that emphasize tradeoffs and the properties of individual animals show promise. Throughout, we highlight similarities and differences between the historic and future applications of pharm-ecological concepts in understanding the ecology and evolution of terrestrial and aquatic interactions between herbivores and plants. We offer several pharm-ecology related questions and hypotheses that could strengthen our understanding of the nutritional and chemical factors that modulate foraging behavior of herbivores across terrestrial and aquatic systems.Journal of Chemical Ecology 03/2013; 39(4). · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis) are one of only three vertebrates that subsist virtually exclusively on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), which contains high levels of monoterpenes that can be toxic. We examined the mechanisms used by specialist pygmy rabbits to eliminate 1,8-cineole, a monoterpene of sagebrush, and compared them with those of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus nuttalli), a generalist herbivore. Rabbits were offered food pellets with increasing concentrations of cineole, and we measured voluntary intake and excretion of cineole metabolites in feces and urine. We expected pygmy rabbits to consume more, but excrete cineole more rapidly by using less-energetically expensive methods of detoxification than cottontails. Pygmy rabbits consumed 3-5 times more cineole than cottontails relative to their metabolic body mass, and excreted up to 2 times more cineole metabolites in their urine than did cottontails. Urinary metabolites excreted by pygmy rabbits were 20 % more highly-oxidized and 6 times less-conjugated than those of cottontails. Twenty percent of all cineole metabolites recovered from pygmy rabbits were in feces, whereas cottontails did not excrete fecal metabolites. When compared to other mammals that consume cineole, pygmy rabbits voluntarily consumed more, and excreted more cineole metabolites in feces, but they excreted less oxidized and more conjugated cineole metabolites in urine. Pygmy rabbits seem to have a greater capacity to minimize systemic exposure to cineole than do cottontails, and other cineole-consumers, by minimizing absorption and maximizing detoxification of ingested cineole. However, mechanisms that lower systemic exposure to cineole may come with a higher energetic cost in pygmy rabbits than in other mammalian herbivores.Journal of Chemical Ecology 10/2012; 38(9):1178-89. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between the invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and the proliferation of epithelial cells was histoplanimetrically investigated in the rat ascending colon. Indigenous bacteria preferentially adhered to the intestinal superficial epithelial cells in the mesenterium-attached mucosa (MAM) compared to those in the mesenterium-non-attached mucosa (MNM). Intestinal crypts with indigenous bacteria were also significantly more frequently found in MAM than in MNM. Total epithelial cells, columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells were significantly more abundant in the intestinal crypts with no-indigenous bacteria in MAM (MAM-C) than those in MNM (MNM-C), whereas the columnar epithelial cells were less abundant in MAM-C than in the intestinal crypts with indigenous bacteria in MAM (MAM-C-B). Columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells immuno-positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in MAM-C were more abundant than those in MNM-C, but less abundant than those in MAM-C-B. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4 and -9 were immuno-positive in the striated borders of the intestinal superficial epithelial cells, but their positive intensities were weaker in MAM than in MNM. From these findings, indigenous bacteria were confirmed to preferentially settle on the intestinal superficial epithelium of MAM in the rat ascending colon, and low TLRs-expression might contribute to the preferential settlement of indigenous bacteria in MAM. The increase of proliferating epithelial cells is probably induced by the invasion of indigenous bacteria into the intestinal crypts of MAM.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 03/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor