Histoplanimetrical Study on the Spatial Relationship of Distribution of Indigenous Bacteria with Mucosal Lymphatic Follicles in Alimentary Tract of Rat
Department of Bioresource and Agrobiosciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science (Impact Factor: 0.78). 06/2009; 71(5):621-30. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.71.621
The spatial relationship between the distribution of indigenous bacteria (IB) and the situation of mucosal lymphatic follicles (LF) is histoplanimetrically studied in the rat alimentary tract. From the oral cavity to the nonglandular part of the stomach, IB adhered to the corneal layer of the most luminal mucosa. In the glandular part of the stomach, IB adhered only to the most luminal mucosa but not in the gastric pits. In the small intestine, IB consistently adhered around the apices of both intestinal villi and the domes, and their amounts decreased toward their basal portions. No IB entered the intestinal crypts. In the large intestine, IB consistently adhered to the most luminal mucosa. Numerous IB were suspended in the intestinal crypts of both the cecum and the proximal colon, whereas there were no IB in the crypts of the distal colon and the rectum. When IB spread over the basal portions of the intestinal villi, IB with the same morphology were detected on the neighboring LF, whereas no bacteria were detected on the neighboring LF, when IB were located in the apical to middle portions of the intestinal villi. This close relationship between the distribution of IB and mucosal LF was also observed in the large intestine. These results suggest that the most luminal mucosae are a fundamental settlement site of IB throughout the alimentary tract and that the hyperproliferation of IB's colonies might be detected by neighboring LF in the rat intestine.
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ABSTRACT: To clarify the fundamental regulation mechanism against indigenous bacterial proliferation in the alimentary tract, we immunohistochemically examined the localization of 4 bactericidal peptides (BP) in the rat digestive exocrine glands. In the upper alimentary tract, lysozyme was detected in the gustatory, extraorbital lacrimal and parotid glands. Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was detected in the extraorbital lacrimal glands. β-defensin1 was detected in the gustatory and extraorbital lacrimal glands. β-defensin2 was detected in the Harderian glands. In the stomach, β-defensins were detected in the gastric superficial epithelial cells. In the small and large intestines, only lysozyme and sPLA2 were detected in the Paneth cells. In the cecum, all 4 BP were detected in the middle to apical portions of the crypts, and only sPLA2 was detected in the basal portion. No BP were localized in other exocrine glands associated with the alimentary tract. In addition, all 4 BP were also detected in the columnar epithelial cells of the apical portions of intestinal villi. In the intestinal superficial epithelial cells, lysozyme and β-defensins were detected in the ascending colon, whereas only β-defensin1 was detected in the descending colon and rectum. These results suggest that BP are mainly secreted from exocrine tissues in the initial portion of the digestive tract and play a role in host defense against indigenous bacteria throughout the digestive tract. Part of the BP in the chyme might be absorbed by the epithelium at the most inner sites of mucosae in the small and large intestines.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 02/2011; 73(2):217-25. DOI:10.1292/jvms.10-0293 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To clarify the regulatory mechanism by bactericidal peptides secretion, the secretion of bactericidal peptides was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically compared with the degree of Gram-positive/negative bacterial colonization throughout the rat alimentary tract. In the associated exocrine glands from the oral cavity to the stomach, no comparable differences were observed under the changes of development of indigenous bacterial colonies. In the small intestine, immunopositive granules for lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) were markedly decreased, whereas immunopositive vacuoles in the Paneth cells were more increased at sites with hyper-development of indigenous bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces than at sites with no or less development. No changes in exocrine glands were observed in the large intestine because of the constant existence of large quantities of bacteria. Gram-positive bacterial colonies on the mucosal surfaces were dominant from the oral cavity to the stomach. Gram-negative bacteria were dominant in the large intestine, and the distributions of both Gram-positive and negative bacteria were intermediate in the small intestine. These findings suggest that lysozyme and sPLA2 secreted from the Paneth cells contribute to the regulation of the proliferation of indigenous bacteria in the intervillous spaces of the small intestine, and that the inversion of distributions of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria in the alimentary tract might be caused by the secretion of lysozyme and sPLA2 in the small intestine.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 04/2011; 73(8):1043-50. DOI:10.1292/jvms.11-0114 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The apoptosis process in rat esophageal epithelium was investigated using enzyme-immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, Fas and Fas-L were expressed in the epithelial cell membrane and cytoplasm from the stratum spinosum (SS) to the stratum granulosum (SG). No TNF-R1 show immunopositivity in the cell membranes. TNF-α and caspase-8 were not observed in any layer. Caspase-10, cleaved caspase-3, XIAP and DNase-1 were found in the epithelial cytoplasm from the SS to the SG, whereas Bid, Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 were detected only in the SG. Cytochrome c was observed as cytoplasmic granular positivity from the stratum basale (SB) and altered into homogeneous immunopositivity in the SG. Bcl-2 and Bcl-X immunopositivity was detected in cytoplasm from the SB to the SG. Immunoreactions of Bak in the cytoplasm and Bax beneath the cell membrane were observed from the upper portion of the SS with increasing intensity toward the SG. In the sites with the hyperproliferation of indigenous bacteria, TNF-R1, TNF-α and caspase-8 were detected in the SG and the immunopositive intensities of Bid, Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 were altered to be strong. Prominently swollen cells and decreased mitochondria were ultrastructurally confirmed in the uppermost layers of stratum corneum. These findings suggest that the Fas-Fas-L-interaction initially induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-independent pathway and secondarily through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, leading to eventual epithelial cell death in the rat esophageal epithelium. The bacterial stimuli probably enhance the mitochondria-dependent pathway through the TNF-R1-TNF-α interaction.Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 12/2011; 74(5):597-605. DOI:10.1292/jvms.11-0516 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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