Isolation of Candida dubliniensis from denture wearers.
ABSTRACT Candida albicans is considered the most important Candida species able to cause oral infections in denture wearers. In recent years, Candida dubliniensis has emerged as a pathogenic yeast in humans. The close phenotypic similarities of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis have led to the misidentification of these species. In this work, our aim was to verify through PCR the presence of C. dubliniensis in palate and maxillary denture samples from 112 denture wearers presenting with or without denture-related stomatitis (DRS). C. dubliniensis was isolated at low rates from both palate (5.3 % and 10.7 %) and maxillary denture (5.3 % and 8.9 %) samples from wearers regardless of the presence of the disease. However, when C. dubliniensis was detected in individuals with DRS, it was always associated with C. albicans. In addition, our results showed that C. albicans was the most commonly identified candidal species in maxillary denture and hard palate samples from DRS patients (78.5 % and 89.2 %, respectively) as well as from controls (31.2 % and 28.5 %, respectively). In conclusion, C. dubliniensis was detected in the oral environment of denture wearers. The association of C. dubliniensis with C. albicans occurred in approximately 10 % of the DRS cases.
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ABSTRACT: Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast closely related to Candida albicans that has been recently implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation, with cells in biofilms displaying properties dramatically different from free-living cells grown under normal laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the development of in vitro models of C. dubliniensis biofilms on the surfaces of biomaterials (polystyrene and acrylic) and on the characteristics associated with biofilm formation by this newly described species. Time course analysis using a formazan salt reduction assay to monitor metabolic activities of cells within the biofilm, together with microscopy studies, revealed that biofilm formation by C. dubliniensis occurred after initial focal adherence, followed by growth, proliferation, and maturation over 24 to 48 h. Serum and saliva preconditioning films enhanced the initial attachment of C. dubliniensis and subsequent biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to further characterize C. dubliniensis biofilms. Mature C. dubliniensis biofilms consisted of a dense network of yeasts cells and hyphal elements embedded within exopolymeric material. C. dubliniensis biofilms displayed spatial heterogeneity and an architecture showing microcolonies with ramifying water channels. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated the increased resistance of sessile C. dubliniensis cells, including the type strain and eight different clinical isolates, against fluconazole and amphotericin B compared to their planktonic counterparts. C. dubliniensis biofilm formation may allow this species to maintain its ecological niche as a commensal and during infection with important clinical repercussions.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2001; 39(9):3234-40. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The authors developed a new, simple, and reliable PCR/restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, using amplification of the hyphal wall protein 1 gene of Candida albicans and its gene homologue in Candida dubliniensis, to differentiate the two species of Candida. Performed with a new primer set, CRR-f/CRR-r, PCR produced two different fragments: one of 1,180 bp for C. albicans, and one of 930 bp for C. dubliniensis.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 08/2006; 44(7):2590-2. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of putative periodontal pathogens (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Treponema denticola) in saliva of children with mixed dentition at two different time points, correlating these findings with a clinical parameter of gingival health. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection was used to determine the prevalence of these bacteria in saliva of 64 children in 2003 and 60 children in 2004. Gingival health was assessed by gingival index. Sixty-two (96.9%) and 50 (83.3%) children presented low gingival inflammation, whereas 2 (3.1%) and 10 (16.7%) had moderate scores in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Majority of the children (81.3% in 2003 and 73.3% in 2004) had detectable levels of at least one of the bacteria. The prevalence found was of 4.7% and 1.7% for A. actinomycetemcomitans, 6.3% and 8.3% for P. gingivalis, 23.4% and 48.3% for P. nigrescens (P < 0.05), and 71.9% and 50% for T. denticola (P < 0.05) in 2003 and 2004, respectively. No significant relationship between gingival index and presence of these bacteria and combination of different species was found. A high percentage of children harboured at least one of the putative periodontal pathogens in saliva, but presented periodontally healthy conditions.International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 05/2007; 17(3):192-9. · 0.92 Impact Factor