Isolation of Candida dubliniensis from denture wearers.
ABSTRACT Candida albicans is considered the most important Candida species able to cause oral infections in denture wearers. In recent years, Candida dubliniensis has emerged as a pathogenic yeast in humans. The close phenotypic similarities of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis have led to the misidentification of these species. In this work, our aim was to verify through PCR the presence of C. dubliniensis in palate and maxillary denture samples from 112 denture wearers presenting with or without denture-related stomatitis (DRS). C. dubliniensis was isolated at low rates from both palate (5.3 % and 10.7 %) and maxillary denture (5.3 % and 8.9 %) samples from wearers regardless of the presence of the disease. However, when C. dubliniensis was detected in individuals with DRS, it was always associated with C. albicans. In addition, our results showed that C. albicans was the most commonly identified candidal species in maxillary denture and hard palate samples from DRS patients (78.5 % and 89.2 %, respectively) as well as from controls (31.2 % and 28.5 %, respectively). In conclusion, C. dubliniensis was detected in the oral environment of denture wearers. The association of C. dubliniensis with C. albicans occurred in approximately 10 % of the DRS cases.
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ABSTRACT: Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogenic yeast species closely related to Candida albicans and frequently found colonizing or infecting the oral cavities of HIV/AIDS patients. Drug resistance during C. dubliniensis infection is common and constitutes a significant therapeutic challenge. The calcineurin inhibitor FK506 exhibits synergistic fungicidal activity with azoles or echinocandins in the fungal pathogens C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study, we show that calcineurin is required for cell wall integrity and wild-type tolerance of C. dubliniensis to azoles and echinocandins; hence, these drugs are candidates for combination therapy with calcineurin inhibitors. In contrast to C. albicans, in which the roles of calcineurin and Crz1 in hyphal growth are unclear, here we show that calcineurin and Crz1 play a clearly demonstrable role in hyphal growth in response to nutrient limitation in C. dubliniensis. We further demonstrate that thigmotropism is controlled by Crz1, but not calcineurin, in C. dubliniensis. Similar to C. albicans, C. dubliniensis calcineurin enhances survival in serum. C. dubliniensis calcineurin and crz1/crz1 mutants exhibit attenuated virulence in a murine systemic infection model, likely attributable to defects in cell wall integrity, hyphal growth, and serum survival. Furthermore, we show that C. dubliniensis calcineurin mutants are unable to establish murine ocular infection or form biofilms in a rat denture model. That calcineurin is required for drug tolerance and virulence makes fungus-specific calcineurin inhibitors attractive candidates for combination therapy with azoles or echinocandins against emerging C. dubliniensis infections.Eukaryotic Cell 06/2011; 10(6):803-19. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, identify, and compare opportunistic microorganisms (Candida and Staphylococcus genera and Enterobacteriaceae/Pseudomonadaceae families) from prosthesis-fitting surfaces, the hard palate, and mouth rinses of individuals wearing removable maxillary prosthesis with (50) and without (50) lesions of denture stomatitis (DS). The strains were collected and identified using phenotypic, biochemical and molecular tests. The counts of microorganisms were significantly higher in the group of individuals with DS (P < 0.05). C. albicans was the most frequently isolated yeast species in both groups, following by C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Six isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis. S. aureus and S. epidermidis were the most frequent Staphylococcus species in both groups. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species in both groups. The association between Candida spp. and bacteria isolated in this study with DS suggests that these microorganisms may play important roles in the establishment and persistence of this disease.Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 06/2013; · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have identified impaired neutrophils in elderly individuals which could be involved with Candida-related denture stomatitis (DS), an oral infection predominantly caused by Candida albicans, affecting especially elderly individuals using dental prosthesis. However, specific mechanisms performed by neutrophil contributing to the susceptibility of the elderly to DS are not fully understood. This study evaluated activation features of blood neutrophils from elderly and young individuals with DS. Blood neutrophils cultured with C. albicans from elderly subjects secreted decreased levels of CXCL8. However, C. albicans challenged-neutrophils from DS patients produced high IL-4 and IL-10, and low GM-CSF levels, regardless of age. Additional elastase activity of neutrophils from both elderly groups was detected after incubation with C. albicans, but only neutrophils from elderly DS demonstrated high myeloperoxidase activity. Therefore, DS patients have affected neutrophils, and the advance of age intensifies these damages. In summary, individuals with Candida-related denture stomatitis presented variation in the neutrophil phenotype and activation. Such alterations were more intense in neutrophils from infected elderly individuals.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2011; 31(6):1271-7. · 3.02 Impact Factor