Vasohibin-1 expression in endothelium of tumor blood vessels regulates angiogenesis.
ABSTRACT In this study, we characterized the significance of the vascular endothelial growth factor-inducible angiogenesis inhibitor vasohibin-1 to tumors. In pathological sections of non-small cell lung carcinoma, vasohibin-1 was present in the endothelial cells of blood vessels of the tumor stroma, but not in the lymphatics. In cancer cells, the presence of vasohibin-1 was associated with hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha/vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 expression. We then examined the function of vasohibin-1 in the mouse by subcutaneously inoculating with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Resultant tumors in vasohibin-1(-/-) mice contained more immature blood vessels and fewer apoptotic tumor cells than tumors in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice that had been inoculated with Lewis lung carcinoma cells, tail vein injection of adenovirus containing the human vasohibin-1 gene inhibited tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Moreover, the remaining tumor vessels in adenoviral human vasohibin-1 gene-treated mice were small, round, and mature, surrounded by mural cells. The addition of adenoviral human vasohibin-1 gene to cisplatin treatment improved cisplatin's antitumor activity in mice. These results suggest that endogenous vasohibin-1 is not only involved in tumor angiogenesis, but when sufficient exogenous vasohibin-1 is supplied, it blocks sprouting angiogenesis by tumors, matures the remaining vessels, and enhances the antitumor effect of conventional chemotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: The question of whether some blood vessels in tumors of non-vascular origin are lined by cancer cells has been discussed for many years because of the relevance to metastasis, access of drugs to tumor cells, and the effectiveness of angiogenesis inhibitors. Most evidence favoring the existence of tumor cell-lined vessels has come from observations of standard histopathological tissue sections or from transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies. However, it has been difficult to determine convincingly just how abundant these vessels are in tumors. On the one hand, virtually the entire microvasculature is supposedly lined by tumor cells in aggressive uveal melanomas, assuming the presence of vasculogenic mimicry where tumor cells masquerading as endothelial cells create the channels for blood flow. On the other hand, morphometric studies using immunohistochemistry and green fluorescent protein-transfected tumor cells suggest that human colon cancer cells constitute only 3% of the vessel surface in tumors grown orthotopically in mice. This commentary weighs evidence that cancer cells are located in the wall of tumor vessels and discusses the pitfalls in identifying such vessels. Published data along with new observations illustrate the challenges of making an unequivocal identification of tumor cells in vessel walls. Taken together, current evidence suggests that cancer cells contribute at most only a small proportion of the lining of blood vessels in tumors and may be migrating through vessel walls or exposed by defects in the endothelium. Even in aggressive uveal melanomas, blood flow probably occurs mainly through channels lined by endothelial cells, not tumor cells, and most existing data do not support a functionally significant contribution of vasculogenic mimicry. Innovative new approaches that distinguish pleomorphic tumor cells from abnormal endothelial cells in vessel walls will help to define the incidence and importance of tumor cell-lined blood vessels in drug delivery and metastasis via the bloodstream.Cancer and metastasis reviews 02/2000; 19(1-2):109-20. · 10.57 Impact Factor
Article: Association of vascular endothelial growth factor expression with intratumoral microvessel density and tumour cell proliferation in human epidermoid lung carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, vascularisation and tumour cell proliferation were analysed in 91 human epidermoid lung carcinomas using immunohistochemistry. A polyclonal anti-VEGF antibody was used for VEGF expression, a polyclonal antibody directed against human von Willebrand factor (factor VIII) to identify blood vessels and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a marker for proliferating cells. Positive staining for VEGF was obtained in 54 out of 91 cases (59%), the number of blood vessels varied from zero to 64 counts (mean 9.4) and the proportion of PCNA-positive cells varied from 1.3% to 72.1% (mean 25.2%). The mean PCNA labelling index and mean microvessel count in VEGF-positive tumours were significantly higher than those in VEGF-negative tumours (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P<0.0001; p<0.05). In addition, PCNA labelling index significantly increased with increasing VEGF expression (Jonckheere test, P<0.0001). In contrast, no association was found between PCNA labelling index and tumour vascularity (r=0.07, P=0.48). The close correlation of VEGF expression with tumour cell proliferation and microvessel density suggests that VEGF acts both as an autocrine growth factor and as stimulator for angiogenesis. However, tumour cell proliferation and microvessel growth and/or density may be regulated by separate mechanisms.British Journal of Cancer 04/1996; 73(7):931-4. · 5.04 Impact Factor