Frequent incidental discovery of phaeochromocytoma: data from a German cohort of 201 phaeochromocytoma
ABSTRACT Adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma are chromaffin cell-derived tumours that are discovered due to classical symptom triad with headache, sweating and palpitations combined with persistent or paroxysmal hypertension. However, an increasing proportion of phaeochromocytoma seems to be discovered incidentally upon abdominal imaging.
To specify the exact circumstances of discovery of adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma.
Four German endocrine centres participated in this retrospective study. MEDICAL: records of 201 patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma who were diagnosed between 1973 and 2007 were analyzed.
The typical triad of symptoms was found only in 10% of cases. Ten percent of patients presented were without clinical symptoms and 6.1% were normotensive. Documented blood pressure peaks occurred in 44.1% of cases. In 24 patients (12.2%), phaeochromocytoma was malignant. Before 1985, <10% of cases were incidentally discovered, whereas thereafter the frequency was >25% (29.4% of the total study population). Patients with incidentally detected phaeochromocytoma were significantly older (53.1+/-1.9 vs 47.0+/-1.3 years; P<0.05) and often had less blood pressure peaks (37.0 vs 70.7%; P<0.001) than patients in whom the diagnosis was suspected on clinical grounds. Of phaeochromocytomas 94.4% were intra-adrenal tumours, of which 12.9% were bilateral. Bilateral tumours were significantly smaller than unilateral tumours (36.6+/-14.7 vs 52.5+/-34.3 mm; P<0.05), whereas extra-adrenal tumours had a mean diameter of 52.6+/-28.7 mm.
Owing to better availability and accessibility of imaging procedures, the number of incidentally discovered phaeochromocytoma is increasing and reaches nearly 30% in our study population. Every adrenal incidentaloma should be investigated for the presence of phaeochromocytoma.
SourceAvailable from: Kalyane Bach-Ngohou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Imaging technological advances and widespread use of abdominal imaging have led to the identification of an increasing number of adrenal incidentalomas in the last decades. Causes of these adrenal masses are multiple, but the most common etiology is the non-functional adenoma. Although in most cases, these masses are benign and non-functional, clinicians have to perform biochemical testing for subclinical cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma or primary hyperaldosteronism. This screening is essential for their etiological diagnosis and therapeutic management. We report in this article the biological approach to detect secretory activity of adrenal incidentalomas and the diagnostic accuracy of the biochemical tests used.Annales de biologie clinique 12/2014; 72(6):629-637. DOI:10.1684/abc.2014.1013 · 0.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To improve the cost efficiency of the imaging evaluation of clinically suspected pheochromocytoma by using 24-hour fractionated urine metanephrine (FUM) results. Methods: A retrospective review of I-123 meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine single photon emission tomography (SPECT) computed tomography (CT) studies performed at our institution between January 2007 and February 2011 for clinically suspected pheochromocytoma was performed. SPECT-CT results from 70 patients were compared with results from 24-hour FUM analysis (within 2 months of SPECT-CT) and with relevant CT or magnetic resonance imaging studies (within 6 months of SPECT-CT). An imaging algorithm was developed to maximize cost efficiency without altering the final imaging interpretation. Actual imaging costs for the studied cohort were compared with the expected costs if this algorithm had been applied. Results: If the 24-hour FUMs were normal, then all the SPECT-CT studies were negative (16/70). Eighty-seven percent of patients with abnormal total metanephrine had a positive SPECT-CT. If the total metanephrine was normal but 1 or more of the metanephrine fractions were abnormal, then 39%-58% of the SPECT-CT studies were positive. Within this subgroup, none had a positive SPECT-CT if a CT or magnetic resonance image was negative or benign. The actual imaging costs averaged CAD$2833.19 per patient for this cohort. Applying a streamlined imaging algorithm guided by 24-hour FUM analysis would result in an average imaging cost of CAD$1225.97 per patient without an expected change in the final imaging impression. Conclusion: By using 24-hour FUM results to streamline imaging, considerable cost savings per patient (56.7%) can be attained without a change in the final overall imaging interpretation.Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal 07/2014; 65(4). DOI:10.1016/j.carj.2014.01.001 · 0.58 Impact Factor