Secondhand smoke in Geneva, 1996-2006: changes in exposure, opinions, and workplace smoking bans in the absence of national legislation.
ABSTRACT Postal surveys were conducted in 1996 and 2006 to assess change in duration of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), frequency of smoking bans at the workplace, and opinions on smokefree measures in Geneva, Switzerland in the absence of national smoke-free legislation. A random sample of 742 participants in 1996 and 1487 in 2006 showed length of exposure to SHS decreased from 7 hours/week to 4 hours/week, with the largest decrease among 26-45 year olds. Workplace smoking bans increased from 33.4% to 66.3% (p < 0.001). Agreement that SHS is dangerous to health increased from 77.5% to 86.0% (p = 0.006). Agreement that all restaurant tables should be reserved to nonsmokers also increased, from 14.8% to 41.4% (p < 0.001). Opinions were more favorable to all smoke-free measures in 2006 than in 1996, except, "More information should be given on the health dangers of SHS," suggesting a level of saturation was reached for information on SHS.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Article 8 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates all signatory countries to "protect citizens from exposure to tobacco smoke in workplaces, public transport and indoor public places." Even though there has been great progress in the implementation of Article 8, still most of the world population remains exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS). In this article, we sought to summarize the research that supports Article 8, where do we stand, and current research gaps and future directions.Discussion: Secondhand smoke is an established cause of heart disease and several types of cancer. Additional research is needed to reach final conclusions for diseases where evidence is only suggestive of causality. The only solution to SHS exposure in public places is banning smoking indoors. Research on the gaming industry and nightclubs, particularly in developing countries, needs to be disseminated to support their inclusion in smoke-free laws. Aside from indoor bans, additional research is needed for outdoor and multiunit housing bans and in support of measures that protect children and other vulnerable populations. The impact of smoke-free laws on other health outcomes, besides heart disease and respiratory outcomes, is another area where further research is needed. Thirdhand smoke assessment and health effects are also likely to be a topic of further research. As new tobacco products emerge, evaluating SHS exposure and effects will be vital.Conclusions: Furthering research in support of Article 8 can contribute to reach the final goal of protecting everyone from SHS exposure.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10/2012; DOI:10.1093/ntr/nts200 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: From 2010 through 2012, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene engaged in multiple smoke-free-air activities in collaboration with community, institution, and government partners. These included implementing a law prohibiting smoking in all parks and beaches as well as working to increase compliance with existing Smoke-free Air Act provisions. We investigated trends in awareness of existing smoke-free rules publicized with new signage and public support for new smoke-free air strategies by using 3 waves of survey data from population-based samples of smoking and nonsmoking adults in New York City (2010-2012). Analyses adjusted for the influence of sociodemographic characteristics. Among both smokers and nonsmokers, we observed increased awareness of smoke-free regulations in outdoor areas around hospital entrances and grounds and in lines in outdoor waiting areas for buses and taxis. Regardless of smoking status, women, racial/ethnic minorities, and adults aged 25 to 44 years were more likely than men, non-Hispanic whites, and adults aged 65 years or older to support smoke-free air strategies. New signage was successful in increasing population-wide awareness of rules. Our analysis of the association between demographic characteristics and support for tobacco control over time provide important contextual information for community education efforts on secondhand smoke and smoke-free air strategies.Preventing chronic disease 01/2014; 11:E16. DOI:10.5888/pcd11.130263 · 1.96 Impact Factor
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift 01/2012; 142. DOI:10.4414/smw.2012.13678 · 1.88 Impact Factor