[Clinically relevant drug interactions with new generation antidepressants and antipsychotics].

Neurobiologisches Labor für Brain Aging and Mental Health, Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken Basel, Basel.
Therapeutische Umschau 07/2009; 66(6):485-92. DOI: 10.1024/0040-5930.66.6.485
Source: PubMed


Because antidepressants and antipsychotics are commonly described in combination with drugs used to treat comorbid psychiatric or somatic disorders (e.g. anxiolytics, mood stabilizers, cardiovascular drugs, antimicrobial agents), they may be involved in drug interactions. Furthermore, agents such as lithium and atypical antipsychotics may be used to augment the antidepressant response in cases of refractory depression. Based on their mechanisms, drug-drug interactions can be classified either as pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic in nature. The well-documented risk of potentially harmful pharmacodynamic drug interactions with first-generation anti-depressants, e.g. monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), with regard to the induction of the serotonin syndrome, has contributed to a gradual decline in their use in clinical practise. Second- and third-generation antidepressants have gradually replaced tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and MAOIs, mainly because of their improved tolerability and safety profile. The second- and third-generation antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and other compounds with different mechanisms of action. These drugs and also the majority of antipsychotics are metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system. Therefore, the use of these compounds may be associated with clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions with other medications. The knowledge about the CYP metabolism of drugs may be used to guide the selection of an antidepressant or an anti-psychotic with a low drug-drug interaction potential for an individual patient. The aim of the present article is to review drug-interaction potentials with specific focus on second-generation antidepressants (SSRIs), newer antidepressants (SNRIs: venlafaxine and duloxetine; bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone), novel atypical antidepressants (agomelatine), as well as new generation atypical antipsychotics (aripiprazole, paliperidone).

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    ABSTRACT: Drug interactions in clinical practice are common and have developed into an increasing challenge for the medical profession. Specifically antidepressant drugs (ADs), which are among the 5 most frequently prescribed drugs, are predestined for adverse drug interactions because of their multiple mechanisms of action and/or their influence on drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and other new-generation ADs have an overall improved safety profile, their potential for drug interactions is to be considered. A review of the current literature has been performed, and selected examples of clinically relevant interactions with ADs have been chosen. With regard to pharmacodynamic interactions, the serotonin syndrome, the risk of bleeding under SSRI therapy, and the corrected Q-T interval prolongation are discussed in this review. The inhibitory effects of new-generation ADs on CYP enzymes show great variability and might be relevant for prescription recommendations in elderly patients and in patients with polypharmacy. The CYP-enzyme-inducing effect of St. John's wort, a popular over-the-counter herbal drug, may lead to decreased plasma levels of CYP substrates. When comparing prescription data and observed adverse drug events, there is fortunately a safety gap between the number of potential drug-drug interactions and the number of clinically observed side effects due to drug-drug interactions.
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, it has been increasingly recognized that antidepressant drugs may exert a range of effects, in addition to their well-documented ability to modulate neurotransmission. Although as a group they act on monoaminergic systems and receptors in different ways, a number of studies have demonstrated that at least some antidepressants might have other properties in common, including immunomodulatory, cyto/neuroprotective, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These properties are partly related to the influence of antidepressants on glial cell function. Recently, emerging information about the possible anticancer properties of antidepressants has sparked increased interest within scientific community, and there is now evidence that these drugs affect the key cellular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This review examines the putative cellular targets for the anticancer action of antidepressant drugs, and presents examples of the interaction between antidepressants and anticancer drugs. By reviewing the current state of research in this area, we hope to focus the attention of oncologists and researchers engaged in the study of cancer on the role that antidepressant drugs could play in the complementary therapy of cancer.
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