Gradient lithography of engineered proteins to fabricate 2D and 3D cell culture microenvironments.

NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center-NSEC, University of California, 3112 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740, USA.
Biomedical Microdevices (Impact Factor: 2.77). 07/2009; 11(5):1127-34. DOI: 10.1007/s10544-009-9329-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Spatial patterning of proteins is a valuable technique for many biological applications and is the prevailing tool for defining microenvironments for cells in culture, a required procedure in developmental biology and tissue engineering research. However, it is still challenging to achieve protein patterns that closely mimic native microenvironments, such as gradient protein distributions with desirable mechanical properties. By combining projection dynamic mask lithography and protein engineering with non-canonical photosensitive amino acids, we demonstrate a simple, scalable strategy to fabricate any user-defined 2D or 3D stable gradient pattern with complex geometries from an artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) protein. We show that the elastic modulus and chemical nature of the gradient profile are biocompatible and allow useful applications in cell biological research.

Download full-text


Available from: Xiang Zhang, Jul 03, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Projection-based stereolithography (pSL) is a powerful technique for fabricating three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. This study developed a new pixel-based solidification model for pSL to predict the patterning results. pSL technology makes it possible to create a two-dimensional (2-D) pattern in a single exposure, using a dynamic mask capable of generating 2-D images with micro-resolution. Then, a 3-D structure can be fabricated by stacking the 2-D patterns. Therefore, pixel-based modeling is crucial for predicting the patterning results because the pixel is the fundamental component of the illuminated 2-D images in the patterning process. This study constructed a mathematical model to describe the intensity distribution of an illuminated image. The model was used to predict solidified shapes by calculating the exposure energy and compared with patterning results. The findings showed that our model is quite useful for estimating fabrication results obtained using pSL technology.
    Sensors and Actuators A Physical 05/2012; 178:223–229. DOI:10.1016/j.sna.2012.01.016 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The highly debilitating nature of spinal cord injuries has provided much inspiration for the design of novel biomaterials that can stimulate cellular regeneration and functional recovery. Many experts agree that the greatest hope for treatment of spinal cord injuries will involve a combinatorial approach that integrates biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and molecule delivery. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of biomaterial-scaffold design strategies currently being applied to the development of nerve guidance channels and hydrogels that more effectively stimulate spinal cord tissue regeneration. To enhance the regenerative capacity of these two scaffold types, researchers are focusing on optimizing the mechanical properties, cell-adhesivity, biodegradability, electrical activity, and topography of synthetic and natural materials, and are developing mechanisms to use these scaffolds to deliver cells and biomolecules. Developing scaffolds that address several of these key design parameters will lead to more successful therapies for the regeneration of spinal cord tissue.
    Journal of neurotrauma 09/2009; 27(1):1-19. DOI:10.1089/neu.2009.0948 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Micro- and nano-scale protein patterns have gained significant technological interest. While certain techniques for single-component proteinpatterning are well-established, multicomponent proteinpatterning approaches are a current topic of intensive research, which might enable complex biosensor systems and expand the knowledge in protein-protein and protein-cell or cell-cell interactions. Only a few patterning methods are suitable for the realization of three dimensional patterns, which are essential for many applications e.g. in the design of scaffolds for regenerative therapies. In this feature article representative approaches for creating multicomponent proteinpatterning are presented and their potential for tailoring microenvironments for cells on biomaterials surfaces is discussed.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry 01/2010; 20(35). DOI:10.1039/b926690a · 7.44 Impact Factor