Genotoxicity of organic pollutants in source of drinking water on microalga Euglena gracilis

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, 210093 Nanjing, China.
Ecotoxicology (Impact Factor: 2.71). 07/2009; 18(6):669-76. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-009-0343-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential toxicities of organic pollutants in the drinking water source at Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu were investigated by comet assay and antioxidant enzyme approach on microalgae Euglena gracilis. The organic extracts of the water samples could induce DNA damage on microalgae cells. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed at groups of 0.3x, 3x and 10x concentrations compared with the control and a solvent control (DMSO). The organic extracts also affected antioxidant enzyme activity and induced lipid peroxidation in the microalga. In the high dose group, there was an obvious increase in SOD content (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the concentrated organics from water sample extracts have adversary effects on E. gracilis and could possibly damage the ecosystem.

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    • "As a unicellular flagellated protist, Euglena gracilis is an excellent model for research in eukaryotic cell biology (Foltí nová and Grones, 1997). In addition, E. gracilis has been used as a model organism to study the ecotoxicity or genotoxicity of various environmental stressors, such as organic pollutants (Li et al., 2009) and nanoparticles (Brayner et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Potential environmental risks posed by nanomaterials increase with their extensive production and application. As a newly emerging carbon material, graphene oxide (GO) exhibits excellent electrochemical properties and has promising applications in many areas. However, the ecotoxicity of GO to organisms, especially aquatic organisms, remains poorly understood. Accordingly, this study examined the toxicity of GO with protozoa Euglena gracilis as test organism. Growth inhibition test was initially performed to investigate acute toxic effects. Protozoa were subsequently exposed to GO ranging from 0.5mgL(-1) to 5mgL(-1) for 10d. The growth, photosynthetic pigment content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, ultrastructure of the protozoa, as well as the shading effect of GO, were analyzed to determine the mechanism of the toxicity effect. Results showed that the 96h EC50 value of GO in E. gracilis was 3.76±0.74mgL(-1). GO at a concentration of 2.5mgL(-1) exerted significant (P<0.01) adverse effects on the organism. These effects were evidenced by the inhibition of growth and the enhancement of malondialdehyde content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Shading effect and oxidative stress may be responsible for GO toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 06/2015; 128. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.01.040 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "The comet assay with E. gracilis was performed following methods described by Singh et al. (1988), Aoyama et al. (2003) and Li et al. (2009) with some modifications. The slides were examined with a fluorescent microscope (BX41, Olympus, Japan). "
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    ABSTRACT: The microalga Euglena was selected as a bioindicator for determining genotoxicity potencies of organic pollutants in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu, China among seasons in 2008. Several methods, including the comet assay to determine breaks in DNA and quantification of antioxidant enzymes were applied to characterize genotoxic effects of organic extracts of water from Taihu Lake on the flagellated, microalga Euglena gracilis. Contents of photosynthetic pigments, including Chl a, Chl b and carotenoid pigments were inversely proportion to concentrations of organic extracts to which E. gracilis was exposed. Organic extracts of Taihu Lake water also affected activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of E. gracilis. There were no statistically significant differences in SOD activities among seasons except in June but significant differences in POD activities were observed among all seasons. The metrics of DNA fragmentation in the alkaline unwinding assay (Comet assay), olive tail moment (OTM) and tail moment (TM), used as measurement endpoints during the genotoxicity assay were both greater when E. gracilis was exposed to organic of water collected from Taihu Lake among four seasons. It is indicated that the comet assay was useful for determining effects of constituents of organic extracts of water on E. gracilis and this assay was effective as an early warning to organic pollutants.
    Ecotoxicology 02/2014; 23(4). DOI:10.1007/s10646-014-1214-x · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "The composite effluents of different industries have contributed significantly for the degradation of surface water and soil quality of adjoining areas of industrial zone at Haridwar (Kar et al. 2008; Kumar and Bharti 2012). Moreover, the excessive presence of both the pollutants in water may lead to blood toxicity, eyes and skin irritation, reproductive interferences, paralysis of central nervous system, severe drop in body temperature and even cause cancer in humans and chronic and sub lethal activities to aquatic organisms (Davi and Gnudi 1999; Etxebarria et al. 2012; Exner and Farber 2006; Lewis 1991; Li et al. 2009). In spite of a number of available reports, no regular monitoring data are available for water quality characteristics especially phenolic compounds and surfactants as per Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 1991) about water quality of Ganga Canal at various sites falling under the industrial area zones of Haridwar and nearby city Roorkee. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Ganga Canal emerging out from Ganga river has great ritual importance among pilgrims and tourists at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. The Canal is being polluted due to mass bathing, washing, disposal of sewage, industrial waste and these human activities are deteriorating its water quality. To determine the impact of these activities, Ganga Canal water quality at 5 sites between Haridwar to Roorkee namely Pantdweep, Har Ki Pauri, Singhdwar, Piran Kaliyar and Old Bridge, Roorkee has been analysed for organic pollutants phenolic compounds and surfactants, which have rarely been assessed and reported so far. The results of analysis show that phenolic compounds are not present in water samples of selected 5 sites during bi-monthly monitoring from January 2012 to November 2012. The Har Ki Pauri, Singhdwar, Piran Kaliyar and Old Bridge, Roorkee sites have been detected with surfactant concentration (1.18 mg/l, 1.63 mg/l, 3.2 mg/l 2.5 mg/l) more than permissible limit (1.00 mg/l). Also at most of the sites, surfactants concentration crossed the desirable limit of BIS during the period of analysis. This distribution of surfactants in water has potential risk for skin diseases and cancer and requires regular monitoring with appropriate measures.
    06/2013; 3(4). DOI:10.1007/s13201-013-0116-z
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