Thrombospondin-1-mediated regulation of microglia activation after retinal injury.
ABSTRACT Thrombospondin (TSP)-1 has been demonstrated to play a vital role in immune privilege. The functional phenotype of ocular antigen-presenting cells that contributes to the immune privilege status of the eye is dependent on their expression of TSP-1. Microglia, the local antigen-presenting cells in the retina, undergo rapid activation in response to injury and have the ability to produce both proinflammatory and regenerative neurotrophic factors. In this study, the authors examined TSP-1 as a potential regulator of these phenotype of microglia activated in response to retinal injury.
Expression of markers associated with activated microglia were examined by immunofluorescent staining and semiquantitative real-time PCR analysis of retina derived from WT or TSP-1 null mice at various time intervals after light- or laser-induced retinal injury.
In the absence of TSP-1, microglia in uninjured retina express major histocompatibility complex class II and migrate to the outer layers of the retina. Constitutively increased expression of activated microglia-derived inflammatory molecules such as TNF-alpha and iNOS is detectable in TSP-1 null retina compared with WT controls. After both light-induced and laser-induced retinal injury, enhanced migration of microglia is detected in TSP-1 null retina, and these microglia express markers associated with a proinflammatory phenotype. Compared with WT retina, TSP-1 null retina fails to recover from the laser-induced injury, resulting in irreversible damage.
TSP-1 supports an anti-inflammatory phenotype of microglia in the retina and promotes recovery from injury.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of thrombospondin 1(TSP1) deficiency on choroidal neovascularization (CNV)and to determine whether administration of a TSP1 antiangiogenic mimetic peptide attenuates CNV. The impact of TSP1 deficiency on laser induced CNV was assessed using wild-type (TSP1 +/+) and TSP1-deficient (TSP1 −/−) mice. Three laser burns were placed in each eye of TSP1 +/+ and TSP1 −/− mice to induce CNV. Intravitreal injection of the TSP1 mimetic peptide was performed on days 1 and 7 postlaser in the mice.For quantitative measurements of neovascularization, intercellular adhesion molecule 2 staining was performed at 14 days postlaser of the choroidal-sclera flat mounts. The recruitment of macrophages to the sites of damage was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The CNV area was measured by intercellular adhesion molecule 2 staining and use of ImageJ software. The TSP1 −/− mice exhibited significantly larger areas of neovascularization on choroidal flat mounts compared with TSP1 +/ mice. This was consistent with enhanced recruitment of macrophages in TSP1 −/− mice compared with TSP1 +/+ mice 3 days postlaser. The development of CNV was significantly attenuated in mice receiving the TSP1 antiangiogenic mimetic peptide compared with those receiving vehicle alone. Deficiency of TSP1 contributes to enhanced choroidal neovascularization. This is consistent with the anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activity of TSP1. The TSP1 antiangiogenic peptide was effective in attenuation of CNV. Intravitreal injection of TSP1 antiangiogenic mimetic peptides may provide alternative treatment for CNV.Archives of ophthalmology 01/2012; 130(5):615-20. · 3.86 Impact Factor