Microprisms for In Vivo Multilayer Cortical Imaging

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Journal of Neurophysiology (Impact Factor: 3.04). 06/2009; 102(2):1310-4. DOI: 10.1152/jn.91208.2008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cortical slices allow for simultaneous imaging of multiple cortical layers. However, slices lack native physiological inputs and outputs. Although in vivo, two-photon imaging preserves the native context, it is typically limited to a depth of <500 microm. In addition, simultaneous imaging of multiple cortical layers is difficult due to the stratified organization of the cortex. We demonstrate the use of 1-mm microprisms for in vivo, two-photon neocortical imaging. These prisms enable simultaneous imaging of multiple cortical layers, including layer V, at an angle typical of slice preparations. Images were collected from the mouse motor and somatosensory cortex and show a nearly 900-microm-wide field of view. At high-magnification imaging using an objective with 1-mm of coverglass correction, resolution is sufficient to resolve dendritic spines on layer V neurons. Images collected using the microprism are comparable to images collected from a traditional slice preparation. Functional imaging of blood flow at various neocortical depths is also presented, allowing for quantification of red blood cell flux and velocity. H&E staining shows the surrounding tissue remains in its native, stratified organization. Estimation of neuronal damage using propidium iodide and a fluorescent Nissl stain reveals cell damage is limited to <100 microm from the tissue-glass interface. Microprisms are a straightforward tool offering numerous advantages for into neocortical tissue.

  • Source
    • "Another challenge to using NW electrodes in vivo is recording beyond the layer of dead cells and protective glia that surround implanted electrodes. Studies have reported the thickness of the dead cell layers to be approximately 40 microns (Chia and Levene, 2009). Therefore, to access healthy cells, the NWs electrodes must penetrate through this dead layer. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that can precisely monitor and control neural activity will likely require new hardware with improved resolution and specificity. New nanofabricated electrodes with feature sizes and densities comparable to neural circuits may lead to such improvements. In this perspective, we review the recent development of vertical nanowire (NW) electrodes that could provide highly parallel single-cell recording and stimulation for future BMIs. We compare the advantages of these devices and discuss some of the technical challenges that must be overcome for this technology to become a platform for next-generation closed-loop BMIs.
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits 03/2013; 7(38):38. DOI:10.3389/fncir.2013.00038 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiphoton excitation laser scanning microscopy, relying on the simultaneous absorption of two or more photons by a molecule, is one of the most exciting recent developments in biomedical imaging. Thanks to its superior imaging capability of deeper tissue penetration and efficient light detection, this system becomes more and more an inspiring tool for intravital bulk tissue imaging. Two-photon excitation microscopy including 2-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generated signal microscopy is the most common multiphoton microscopic application. In the present review we take diverse ocular tissues as intravital samples to demonstrate the advantages of this approach. Experiments with registration of intracellular 2-photon fluorescence and extracellular collagen second harmonic generated signal microscopy in native ocular tissues are focused. Data show that the in-tandem combination of 2-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generated signal microscopy as two-modality microscopy allows for in situ co-localization imaging of various microstructural components in the whole-mount deep intravital tissues. New applications and recent developments of this high technology in clinical studies such as 2-photon-controlled drug release, in vivo drug screening and administration in skin and kidney, as well as its uses in tumourous tissues such as melanoma and glioma, in diseased lung, brain and heart are additionally reviewed. Intrinsic emission two-modal 2-photon microscopy/tomography, acting as an efficient and sensitive non-injurious imaging approach featured by high contrast and subcellular spatial resolution, has been proved to be a promising tool for intravital deep tissue imaging and clinical studies. Given the level of its performance, we believe that the non-linear optical imaging technique has tremendous potentials to find more applications in biomedical fundamental and clinical research in the near future.
    Journal of Microscopy 04/2010; 238(1):1-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03330.x · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Light-sheet-based fluorescence imaging techniques rely on simultaneous excitation of a single optical plane and thus permit high-contrast optically sectioned imaging of extended tissue samples. Here, we introduce a miniaturized fiber-optic implementation of a selective plane-illumination microscope (miniSPIM). The excitation light was delivered through a single-mode optical fiber, and a light-sheet was created with a cylindrical gradient-index lens and a right-angle microprism. Fluorescence emission was collected orthogonally to the light-sheet through a gradient-index lens assembly and a coherent fiber bundle. The end face of the fiber bundle was imaged onto a charge-coupled device camera. The spatial resolutions of the miniSPIM were 3.2 microm laterally and 5.1 microm axially. Images of fluorescent beads and neurons in mouse neocortex exhibited superior axial resolution and contrast in the miniSPIM-mode compared to images recorded in epi-illumination mode. The miniSPIM may thus enable novel in vivo imaging approaches.
    Optics Letters 05/2010; 35(9):1413-5. DOI:10.1364/OL.35.001413 · 3.18 Impact Factor
Show more