Mirabello L, Huang WY, Wong JY, Chatterjee N, Reding D, Crawford ED, De Vivo I, Hayes RB, Savage SAThe association between leukocyte telomere length and cigarette smoking, dietary and physical variables, and risk of prostate cancer. Aging Cell 8: 405-413

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Aging cell (Impact Factor: 6.34). 07/2009; 8(4):405-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00485.x
Source: PubMed


Telomeres consist of nucleotide repeats and a protein complex at chromosome ends that are essential to maintaining chromosomal integrity. Several studies have suggested that subjects with shorter telomeres are at increased risk of bladder and lung cancer. In comparison to normal tissues, telomeres are shorter in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. We examined prostate cancer risk associated with relative telomere length as determined by quantitative PCR on prediagnostic buffy coat DNA isolated from 612 advanced prostate cancer cases and 1049 age-matched, cancer-free controls from the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. Telomere length was analyzed as both a continuous and a categorical variable with adjustment for potential confounders. Statistically significant inverse correlations between telomere length, age and smoking status were observed in cases and controls. Telomere length was not associated with prostate cancer risk (at the median, OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.08); associations were similar when telomere length was evaluated as a continuous variable or by quartiles. The relationships between telomere length and inflammation-related factors, diet, exercise, body mass index, and other lifestyle variables were explored since many of these have previously been associated with shorter telomeres. Healthy lifestyle factors (i.e., lower BMI, more exercise, tobacco abstinence, diets high in fruit and vegetables) tended to be associated with greater telomere length. This study found no statistically significant association between leukocyte telomere length and advanced prostate cancer risk. However, correlations of telomere length with healthy lifestyles were noted, suggesting the role of these factors in telomere biology maintenance and potentially impacting overall health status.

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    • "Interestingly, a U-shaped relationship has been observed in both sedentary and extremely active individuals (Ludlow et al., 2013). Most commonly moderate levels of physical activity have been associated with longer LTL (Kim et al., 2012; Mirabello et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: A career as an elite-class male athlete seems to improve metabolic heath in later life and is also associated with longer life expectancy. Telomere length is a biomarker of biological cellular ageing and could thus predict morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between vigorous elite-class physical activity during young adulthood on later life leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The study participants consist of former male Finnish elite athletes (n = 392) and their age-matched controls (n = 207). Relative telomere length was determined from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was self-reported and expressed in metabolic equivalent hours. No significant difference in mean age-adjusted LTL in late life (p = 0.845) was observed when comparing former male elite athletes and their age-matched controls. Current volume of LTPA had no marked influence on mean age-adjusted LTL (p for trend 0.788). LTL was inversely associated with age (p = 0.004).Our study findings suggest that a former elite athlete career is not associated with LTL later in life. Key pointsA career as an elite-class athlete is associated with improved metabolic health in late life and is associated with longer life expectancy.A career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood was not associated with leukocyte telomere length in later life.Current volume of leisure-time physical activity did not influence telomere length in later life.
    Journal of sports science & medicine 06/2015; 14(2):239-45. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Based on the hypothesis that COPD is a disease of accelerated aging [43-46], a number of different studies have analyzed the effect of smoking and COPD status on telomere length in blood leukocytes [6-18]. While some have demonstrated that smokers (independent of COPD status) have shorter blood leukocyte telomeres compared to nonsmokers [6,7,10-13], others have shown that COPD status, but not smoking is associated with shortened telomeres [15-18]. Recent findings from a large study group of 46,396 individuals from the Danish general population demonstrate that blood leukocyte short telomere length is associated with decreased lung function and increased risk of COPD [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Aging involves multiple biologically complex processes characterized by a decline in cellular homeostasis over time leading to a loss and impairment of physiological integrity and function. Specific cellular hallmarks of aging include abnormal gene expression patterns, shortened telomeres and associated biological dysfunction. Like all organs, the lung demonstrates both physiological and structural changes with age that result in a progressive decrease in lung function in healthy individuals. Cigarette smoking accelerates lung function decline over time, suggesting smoking accelerates aging of the lung. Based on this data, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking accelerates the aging of the small airway epithelium, the cells that take the initial brunt of inhaled toxins from the cigarette smoke and one of the primary sites of pathology associated with cigarette smoking.Methods Using the sensitive molecular parameters of aging-related gene expression and telomere length, the aging process of the small airway epithelium was assessed in age matched healthy nonsmokers and healthy smokers with no physical manifestation of lung disease or abnormalities in lung function.ResultsAnalysis of a 73 gene aging signature demonstrated that smoking significantly dysregulates 18 aging-related genes in the small airway epithelium. In an independent cohort of male subjects, smoking significantly reduced telomere length in the small airway epithelium of smokers by 14% compared to nonsmokers.Conclusion These data provide biologic evidence that smoking accelerates aging of the small airway epithelium.
    Respiratory Research 09/2014; 15(1):94. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1384897016115001 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "During the past years population-based surveys and large-scale clinical trials have provided scientific evidences that diet, and especially those rich in fruits, vegetables, fish and low-fat dairy products, are associated with lower incidence of various chronic diseases and higher survival [9], [10]. Accordingly longer LTL is related to a more healthy diet, including greater intake of antioxidant [11], [12], less processed meat consumption [12], intake of fruits and vegetables and less dietary fat [13], [14]. Various nutrients as well as changes in diet and lifestyle have been already shown to influence telomere length through mechanisms reflecting their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity and DNA methylation [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and rate of telomere shortening are known biomarkers of aging while, numerous studies showed that Mediterranean diet (MD) may boost longevity. We studied association between telomere length, telomerase activity and different adherence to MD and its effects on healthy status. The study was conducted in 217 elderly subjects stratified according Mediterranean diet score (MDS) in low adherence (MDS≤3), medium adherence (MDS 4-5) and high adherence (MDS≥6) groups. LTL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and telomerase activity by a PCR-ELISA protocol. High adherence group showed longer LTL (p = 0.003) and higher telomerase activity (p = 0.013) compared to others. Linear regression analysis including age, gender, smoking habit and MDS showed that MDS was independently associated with LTL (p = 0.024) and telomerase activity levels (p = 0.006). Telomerase activity was independently associated with LTL (p = 0.007) and negatively modulated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Indeed, telomerase levels were associated with healthy status independently of multiple covariates (p = 0.048). These results support a novel role of MD in promoting health-span suggesting that telomere maintenance, rather than LTL variability is the major determinant of healthy status among elderly.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62781. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062781 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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