Article

The association between leukocyte telomere length and cigarette smoking, dietary and physical variables, and risk of prostate cancer

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Aging cell (Impact Factor: 5.94). 07/2009; 8(4):405-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00485.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Telomeres consist of nucleotide repeats and a protein complex at chromosome ends that are essential to maintaining chromosomal integrity. Several studies have suggested that subjects with shorter telomeres are at increased risk of bladder and lung cancer. In comparison to normal tissues, telomeres are shorter in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. We examined prostate cancer risk associated with relative telomere length as determined by quantitative PCR on prediagnostic buffy coat DNA isolated from 612 advanced prostate cancer cases and 1049 age-matched, cancer-free controls from the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. Telomere length was analyzed as both a continuous and a categorical variable with adjustment for potential confounders. Statistically significant inverse correlations between telomere length, age and smoking status were observed in cases and controls. Telomere length was not associated with prostate cancer risk (at the median, OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.08); associations were similar when telomere length was evaluated as a continuous variable or by quartiles. The relationships between telomere length and inflammation-related factors, diet, exercise, body mass index, and other lifestyle variables were explored since many of these have previously been associated with shorter telomeres. Healthy lifestyle factors (i.e., lower BMI, more exercise, tobacco abstinence, diets high in fruit and vegetables) tended to be associated with greater telomere length. This study found no statistically significant association between leukocyte telomere length and advanced prostate cancer risk. However, correlations of telomere length with healthy lifestyles were noted, suggesting the role of these factors in telomere biology maintenance and potentially impacting overall health status.

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    • "Interestingly, a U-shaped relationship has been observed in both sedentary and extremely active individuals (Ludlow et al., 2013). Most commonly moderate levels of physical activity have been associated with longer LTL (Kim et al., 2012; Mirabello et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: A career as an elite-class male athlete seems to improve metabolic heath in later life and is also associated with longer life expectancy. Telomere length is a biomarker of biological cellular ageing and could thus predict morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between vigorous elite-class physical activity during young adulthood on later life leukocyte telomere length (LTL). The study participants consist of former male Finnish elite athletes (n = 392) and their age-matched controls (n = 207). Relative telomere length was determined from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was self-reported and expressed in metabolic equivalent hours. No significant difference in mean age-adjusted LTL in late life (p = 0.845) was observed when comparing former male elite athletes and their age-matched controls. Current volume of LTPA had no marked influence on mean age-adjusted LTL (p for trend 0.788). LTL was inversely associated with age (p = 0.004).Our study findings suggest that a former elite athlete career is not associated with LTL later in life. Key pointsA career as an elite-class athlete is associated with improved metabolic health in late life and is associated with longer life expectancy.A career as an elite-class athlete during young adulthood was not associated with leukocyte telomere length in later life.Current volume of leisure-time physical activity did not influence telomere length in later life.
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    • "The question that follows is to what extent can the interindividual variation in age-dependent LTL attrition during adulthood explain the wide range of LTL among persons of similar age and the associations of LTL with atherosclerosis and longevity in the population at large. Smoking (Valdes et al., 2005; Vasan et al., 2008; Mirabello et al., 2009; Du et al., 2012), high body mass index (BMI; Valdes et al., 2005), and sedentary life style (Cherkas et al., 2008; Du et al., 2012) have been shown in some studies to be associated with a shorter LTL. Because reverse causality, for example, a short LTL drives people to smoke, is unlikely, these and other unhealthy forms of lifestyle might accelerate the rate of agedependent LTL attrition. "
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    ABSTRACT: SHORT LEUKOCYTE TELOMERE LENGTH (LTL) IS ASSOCIATED WITH ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN ADULTS AND: diminished survival in the elderly. LTL dynamics are defined by LTL at birth, which is highly variable, and its age dependent attrition thereafter, which is rapid during the first 20 years of life. We examined whether age-dependent LTL attrition during adulthood can substantially affect individuals' LTL ranking (e.g., longer or shorter LTL) in relation to their peers. We measured LTL in samples donated 12 years apart on average by 1156 participants in four longitudinal studies. We observed correlations of 0.91-0.96 between baseline and follow-up LTLs. Ranking individuals by deciles revealed that 94.1% (95%, confidence intervals of 92.6-95.4%) showed no rank change or a 1 decile change over time. We conclude that in adults LTL is virtually anchored to a given rank with the passage of time. Accordingly, the links of LTL with atherosclerosis and longevity appear to be established early in life. It is unlikely that lifestyle and its modification during adulthood exert a major impact on LTL ranking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Aging cell 04/2013; 12(4). DOI:10.1111/acel.12086 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "Elevated expression of p53 and p21 seems to be the key mechanism involved in telomere shortening during aging (Feng et al. 2011). It is well accepted that telomere biology maintenance impacts overall health status (Mirabello et al. 2009). Telomere length reflects cellular turnover and exposure to oxidative and inflammatory damage (Savale et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Telomeres, at the ends of chromosomes and strands of genetic material, become shorter as cells divide in the process of aging. Telomere length has been considered as a biological marker of age. Telomere length shortening has also been evidenced as the causable role in age-related neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that telomere shortening has been associated with cognitive impairment, amyloid pathology and hyper-phosphorylation of tau in AD and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD via the mechanism of oxidative stress and inflammation. However, it seems that there is no relationship between telomere shortening and AD. Therefore, it is essential for further clarification of telomere-related pathogenesis in AD.
    NeuroMolecular Medicine 03/2012; 15(1). DOI:10.1007/s12017-012-8207-9 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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