The Yield of First-Time Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Screening Individuals at a High Risk of Developing Pancreatic Cancer
ABSTRACT Approximately 10-15% of all pancreatic cancers (PCs) may be hereditary in origin. We investigated the use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the screening of individuals at high risk for developing PC. In this paper the results of first-time screening with EUS are presented.
Those eligible for screening in this study were first-degree family members of affected individuals from familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) families, mutation carriers of PC-prone hereditary syndromes, individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and mutation carriers of other PC-prone hereditary syndromes with clustering (> or =2 cases per family) of PC. All individuals were asymptomatic and had not undergone EUS before.
Forty-four individuals (M/F 18/26), aged 32-75 years underwent screening with EUS. Thirteen were from families with familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma (FAMMM), 21 with FPC, 3 individuals were diagnosed with hereditary pancreatitis, 2 were Peutz-Jeghers patients, 3 were BRCA1 and 2 were BRCA2 mutation carriers with familial clustering of PC, and 1 individual had a p53 mutation. Three (6.8%) patients had an asymptomatic mass lesion (12, 27, and 50 mm) in the body (n=2) or tail of the pancreas. All lesions were completely resected. Pathology showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas with N1 disease in the two patients with the largest lesions. EUS showed branch-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) in seven individuals.
Screening of individuals at a high risk for PC with EUS is feasible and safe. The incidence of clinically relevant findings at first screening is high with asymptomatic cancer in 7% and premalignant IPMN-like lesions in 16% in our series. Whether screening improves survival remains to be determined, as does the optimal screening interval with EUS.
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ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth and fifth leading cause of cancer death for each gender in developed countries. With lack of effective treatment and screening scheme available for the general population, the mortality rate is expected to increase over the next several decades in contrast to the other major malignancies such as lung, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers. Endoscopic ultrasound, with its highest level of detection capacity of smaller pancreatic lesions, is the commonly employed and preferred clinical imaging-based PDAC detection method. Various molecular biomarkers have been investigated for characterization of the disease, but none are shown to be useful or validated for clinical utilization for early detection. As seen from studies of a small subset of familial or genetically high-risk PDAC groups, the higher yield and utility of imaging-based screening methods are demonstrated for these groups. Multiple recent studies on the unique cancer metabolism including PDAC, demonstrate the potential for utility of the metabolites as the discriminant markers for this disease. In order to generate an early PDAC detection screening strategy available for a wider population, we propose to expand the population of higher risk PDAC group with combination clinical and metabolomics parameters.World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2015; 21(6):1707-1717. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i6.1707 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At-risk family members with familial pancreatic cancer (FCaP) face uncertainty regarding the individual risk of developing pancreatic cancer (CaP) and whether to choose serial screening or prophylactic pancreatectomy to avoid CaP. We treated 2 at-risk siblings with a history of FCaP, congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), and jaundice secondary to a bile duct stricture. In one, a pancreaticoduodenal resection was done and in the second a total pancreatectomy. Malignancy was not present, but extensive pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIn) 2 was present throughout both pancreata. The clinical course and literature review are presented along with the previously unreported association of CHF and CaP.01/2014; 2014:737183. DOI:10.1155/2014/737183
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ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that carries a risk of progression to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by germline mutations in mismatch repair genes such as MSH2 that lead to microsatellite instability and increased risk of tumor formation. Although families with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, a clear connection between Lynch syndrome and IPMN has not been drawn. We present a report of a 58 year-old Caucasian woman with multiple cancers and a germline mutation of MSH2 consistent with Lynch syndrome. A screening abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a dilated main pancreatic duct and cystic ductular structure in the uncinate process that were consistent with IPMN of the main pancreatic duct on excision. Immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction of the patient's pancreas specimen did not reveal microsatellite instability or mismatch repair gene loss of expression or function. Our findings may be explained by the fact that loss of mismatch repair function and microsatellite instability is a late event in neoplastic transformation. Given the relative rarity of main duct IPMN, its appearance in the setting of somatic MSH2 mutation suggests that IPMN may fit into the constellation of Lynch syndrome related malignancies.