The Yield of First-Time Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Screening Individuals at a High Risk of Developing Pancreatic Cancer

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 10.76). 06/2009; 104(9):2175-81. DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2009.276
Source: PubMed


Approximately 10-15% of all pancreatic cancers (PCs) may be hereditary in origin. We investigated the use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for the screening of individuals at high risk for developing PC. In this paper the results of first-time screening with EUS are presented.
Those eligible for screening in this study were first-degree family members of affected individuals from familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) families, mutation carriers of PC-prone hereditary syndromes, individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and mutation carriers of other PC-prone hereditary syndromes with clustering (> or =2 cases per family) of PC. All individuals were asymptomatic and had not undergone EUS before.
Forty-four individuals (M/F 18/26), aged 32-75 years underwent screening with EUS. Thirteen were from families with familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma (FAMMM), 21 with FPC, 3 individuals were diagnosed with hereditary pancreatitis, 2 were Peutz-Jeghers patients, 3 were BRCA1 and 2 were BRCA2 mutation carriers with familial clustering of PC, and 1 individual had a p53 mutation. Three (6.8%) patients had an asymptomatic mass lesion (12, 27, and 50 mm) in the body (n=2) or tail of the pancreas. All lesions were completely resected. Pathology showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas with N1 disease in the two patients with the largest lesions. EUS showed branch-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) in seven individuals.
Screening of individuals at a high risk for PC with EUS is feasible and safe. The incidence of clinically relevant findings at first screening is high with asymptomatic cancer in 7% and premalignant IPMN-like lesions in 16% in our series. Whether screening improves survival remains to be determined, as does the optimal screening interval with EUS.

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    • "In rare cases, multicentric PanINs with associated lobular atrophy and fibrosis involving the entire pancreas may develop in patients with negative family history of PC [55]. PanINs and IPMNs lesions with or without associated FLAs were also documented in patients from families with familial PCs submitted to prospective screening programs [30, 32, 33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early onset pancreatic cancer (EOPC) constitutes less than 5% of all newly diagnosed cases of pancreatic cancer (PC). Although histopathological characteristics of EOPC have been described, no detailed reports on precursor lesions of EOPC are available. In the present study, we aimed to describe histopathological picture of extratumoral parenchyma in 23 cases of EOPCs (definition based on the threshold value of 45 years of age) with particular emphasis on two types of precursor lesions of PC: pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). The types, grades, and densities of precursor lesions of PC were compared in patients with EOPCs, in young patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), and in older (at the age of 46 or more) patients with PC. PanINs were found in 95.6% of cases of EOPCs. PanINs-3 were found in 39.1% of EOPC cases. Densities of all PanIN grades in EOPC cases were larger than in young patients with NENs. Density of PanINs-1A in EOPC cases was larger than in older patients with PC, but densities of PanINs of other grades were comparable. IPMN was found only in a single patient with EOPC but in 20% of older patients with PC. PanINs are the most prevalent precursor lesions of EOPC. IPMNs are rarely precursor lesions of EOPC. Relatively high density of low-grade PanINs-1 in extratumoral parenchyma of patients with EOPC may result from unknown multifocal genetic alterations in pancreatic tissue in patients with EOPCs.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 03/2011; 458(4):439-51. DOI:10.1007/s00428-011-1056-3 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Poley et al. [4] studied the use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for screening of individuals at high risk of developing PC. This included first-degree family members of affected individuals from FPC families and mutation carriers of PC-prone hereditary syndromes such as Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and the FAMMM syndrome. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer's high mortality rate equates closely with its incidence, thereby showing the need for development of biomarkers of its increased risk and a better understanding of its genetics, so that high-risk patients can be better targeted for screening and early potential lifesaving diagnosis. Its phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity is extensive and requires careful scrutiny of its pattern of cancer associations, such as malignant melanoma associated with pancreatic cancer, in the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome, due to the CDKN2A germline mutation. This review is designed to depict several of the hereditary pancreatic cancer syndromes with particular attention given to the clinical application of this knowledge into improved control of pancreatic cancer.
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